Urea

Description

Description of urea with associated disease summary

Urea can be used as standard for normalization to compensate the dilution factor (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. (2009)) for several reasons. First, no urea production or metabolism in lungs. In addition, urea is not volatile and can diffuse between the plasma and airway fluid (Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2003)). The EBC adenosine-to-urea and AMP-to-urea ratios can be potential noninvasive biomarkers of airways diseases (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. (2009)). Description of disease(s) related to urea:

Disease summary

Asthma

EBC urea can be detected using LC-MS/MS and be used to control for dilutional variability. Adenosine-to-urea ratio was higher in asthma patients compared with healthy control (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. (2009)

Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

EBC urea can be detected using LC-MS/MS and be used to control for dilutional variability. AMP-to-urea ratio was higher in CF patients compared with healthy control (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. (2009)).

Summary of extracted biomedical information

Urea is associated with abnormalities such as Infection, H Pylori, Helicobacter Infections, Curb, Ulcerative Colitis and Infant, Newborn, Diseases. The involved biomedical functions are known as Denaturation, urea cycle, Synthesis, urease activity and Excretory function. The associated genes/proteins with urea are N-carbamylglutamate, Gene Clusters, ASK Gene, N-acetyltryptophanamide and AR gene. Urea is associated with Ammonium, Nitrogen, Bicarbonates, Amides and Cyanates.
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Associated references with human 994

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Journal Year Authors & PubMed Link
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Helicobacter 2017 Sep;22 Suppl 1:. PubMed:28891135
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The assessment of carotid intima media thickness and serum paraoxonase-1 activity in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects. Lipids Health Dis 2010 HS. Akbas, S. Basyigit, I. Suleymanlar, D. Kemaloglu, S. Koc, F. Davran, I. Demir, G. Suleymanlar
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Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2009 A. Yanaka, JW. Fahey, A. Fukumoto, M. Nakayama, S. Inoue, S. Zhang, M. Tauchi, H. Suzuki, I. Hyodo, M. Yamamoto
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Evaluation of a latex agglutination test (PYLOGEN) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool specimens. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2009 S. Blanco, M. Forné, A. Lacoma, C. Prat, MA. Cuesta, L. Fuenzalida, JM. Viver, J. Domínguez
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Prospective comparison of severity scores for predicting clinically relevant outcomes for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2009 PPE. Yandiola, A. Capelastegui, J. Quintana, R. Diez, I. Gorordo, A. Bilbao, R. Zalacain, R. Menendez, A. Torres
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Helicobacter pylori eradication may induce de novo, but transient and mild, reflux esophagitis: Prospective endoscopic evaluation. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2009 S. Take, M. Mizuno, K. Ishiki, Y. Nagahara, T. Yoshida, K. Yokota, K. Oguma, H. Okada, K. Yamamoto
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Diagnostic value of rapid urease test and urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori detection in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy: a prospective controlled trial. Dig Liver Dis 2009 AB. Adamopoulos, GS. Stergiou, GN. Sakizlis, DG. Tiniakos, EG. Nasothimiou, DK. Sioutis, AD. Achimastos
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The relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and cardiac syndrome X: a preliminary study. Int. J. Cardiol. 2009 M. Assadi, M. Saghari, A. Ebrahimi, M. Reza Pourbehi, M. Eftekhari, I. Nabipour, M. Abbaszadeh, M. Nazarahari, M. Nasiri, S. Assadi
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[Correlation of Helicobacter pylori infection with the expression of COX-2 and EGFR and VEGF in human gastric carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2008 WM. Xiao, YB. Ding, RH. Shi, WJ. Gong, Y. Xue
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Relationships between Helicobacter pylori infection status, endoscopic, histopathological findings, and cytokine production in the duodenum of Crohn's disease patients. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2008 T. Ando, O. Watanabe, K. Ishiguro, O. Maeda, D. Ishikawa, M. Minami, M. Hasegawa, S. Kondo, Y. Goto, N. Ohmiya, Y. Niwa, H. Goto
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Swiss tertiary care center experience challenges the age-cohort effect in Helicobacter pylori infection. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2008 D. Gruber, D. Pohl, S. Vavricka, B. Stutz, M. Fried, R. Tutuian
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Do urea breath test (UBT) referrals for Helicobacter pylori testing match the clinical guidelines in primary care practice? A prospective observational study. J Eval Clin Pract 2008 H. Noya, BO. Anat, L. Moshe, P. Gennady, H. Zamir, M. Menachem
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Helicobacter pylori infection detected by 14C-urea breath test is associated with iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. 2008 B. Mulayim, NY. Celik, FF. Yanik
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Helicobacter pylori eradication: a novel therapeutic option in chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Med. J. Aust. 2008 V. Sivapathasingam, MP. Harvey, RB. Wilson
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Comparison of the 13C-urea breath test and the endoscopic phenol red mucosal pH test in the quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection loading. Korean J. Intern. Med. 2008 YS. Cho, HS. Chae, SN. Jang, JS. Kim, HS. Son, HK. Kim, BW. Kim, SW. Han, KY. Choi, HK. Lee, ED. Chang
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Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children. Gastroenterology 2008 SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs
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Evaluation of a novel monoclonal-based antigen-in-stool enzyme immunoassay (Premier Platinum HpSA PLUS) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Vietnamese children. Helicobacter 2008 TV. Nguyen, C. Bengtsson, GK. Nguyen, M. Granström
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Does the diagnostic accuracy of the 13C-urea breath test vary with age even after the application of urea hydrolysis rate? Helicobacter 2008 HR. Yang, JS. Ko, JK. Seo
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Alterations of the arginine metabolome in asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008 A. Lara, SB. Khatri, Z. Wang, SA. Comhair, W. Xu, RA. Dweik, M. Bodine, BS. Levison, J. Hammel, E. Bleecker, W. Busse, WJ. Calhoun, M. Castro, KF. Chung, D. Curran-Everett, B. Gaston, E. Israel, N. Jarjour, W. Moore, SP. Peters, WG. Teague, S. Wenzel, SL. Hazen, SC. Erzurum, .
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Short-term triple therapy with azithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication: low cost, high compliance, but low efficacy. BMC Gastroenterol 2008 FM. Silva, JN. Eisig, AC. Teixeira, RC. Barbuti, T. Navarro-Rodriguez, R. Mattar
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Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and (13)C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: a markov model. World J. Gastroenterol. 2008 F. Xie, N. Luo, HP. Lee
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Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: A prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine 2008 L. Kupcinskas, P. Lafolie, A. Lignell, G. Kiudelis, L. Jonaitis, K. Adamonis, LP. Andersen, T. Wadström
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Prevalence and predictive signs for gastrointestinal lesions in premenopausal women with iron deficiency anemia. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2008 D. Carter, Y. Maor, S. Bar-Meir, B. Avidan
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Correspondence between Helicobacter pylori antibodies and urea breath test results in a US-Mexico birth cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2008 Z. Nurgalieva, KJ. Goodman, CV. Phillips, L. Fischbach, JM. de la Rosa, BD. Gold
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Correlation of T cell response and bacterial clearance in human volunteers challenged with Helicobacter pylori revealed by randomised controlled vaccination with Ty21a-based Salmonella vaccines. Gut 2008 T. Aebischer, D. Bumann, HJ. Epple, W. Metzger, T. Schneider, G. Cherepnev, AK. Walduck, D. Kunkel, V. Moos, C. Loddenkemper, I. Jiadze, M. Panasyuk, M. Stolte, DY. Graham, M. Zeitz, TF. Meyer
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The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Australia. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2008 T. Moujaber, CR. MacIntyre, J. Backhouse, H. Gidding, H. Quinn, GL. Gilbert
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Significantly elevated Helicobacter pylori density and different genotype distribution in erosions as compared with normal gastric biopsy specimen detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008 B. Molnar, D. Szoke, A. Ruzsovics, Z. Tulassay
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Scintigraphic evaluation of gallbladder motor functions in H pylori positive and negative patients in the stomach with dyspepsia. World J. Gastroenterol. 2008 OT. Yaylali, M. Yilmaz, FS. Kiraç, S. Değirmencioğlu, M. Akbulut
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Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori infection in humans by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and effect on eradication therapy: a pilot study. Helicobacter 2008 R. Francavilla, E. Lionetti, SP. Castellaneta, AM. Magistà, G. Maurogiovanni, N. Bucci, A. De Canio, F. Indrio, L. Cavallo, E. Ierardi, VL. Miniello
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Fluid and volume monitoring. Int J Artif Organs 2008 MR. Pinsky, P. Brophy, J. Padilla, E. Paganini, N. Pannu
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Helicobacter pylori test and treat versus proton pump inhibitor in initial management of dyspepsia in primary care: multicentre randomised controlled trial (MRC-CUBE trial). BMJ 2008 BC. Delaney, M. Qume, P. Moayyedi, RF. Logan, AC. Ford, C. Elliott, C. McNulty, S. Wilson, FD. Hobbs
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Interpretation of the 13C-urea breath test in the choice of second- and third-line eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. J. Gastroenterol. 2008 GM. Buzás, I. Széles
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Comparison of stool antigen immunoassay methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication treatment. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2008 S. Blanco, M. Forné, A. Lacoma, C. Prat, MA. Cuesta, I. Latorre, JM. Viver, G. Fernández, S. Molinos, J. Domínguez
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Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: improving the sensitivity of CLOtest by increasing the number of gastric antral biopsies. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2008 I. Siddique, K. Al-Mekhaizeem, N. Alateeqi, A. Memon, F. Hasan
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Helicobacter pylori recurrence in developed and developing countries: meta-analysis of 13C-urea breath test follow-up after eradication. Helicobacter 2008 Y. Niv, R. Hazazi
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An evaluation of a serologic test with a current infection marker of Helicobacter pylori before and after eradication therapy in Chinese. Helicobacter 2008 XY. Wang, Y. Yang, RH. Shi, B. Ho, HD. Wang, GX. Zhang
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Second-line rescue therapy with levofloxacin after H. pylori treatment failure: a Spanish multicenter study of 300 patients. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2008 JP. Gisbert, F. Bermejo, M. Castro-Fernández, A. Pérez-Aisa, M. Fernández-Bermejo, A. Tomas, J. Barrio, F. Bory, P. Almela, P. Sánchez-Pobre, A. Cosme, V. Ortiz, P. Niño, S. Khorrami, LM. Benito, JA. Carneros, E. Lamas, I. Modolell, A. Franco, J. Ortuño, L. Rodrigo, F. García-Durán, E. O'Callaghan, J. Ponce, MP. Valer, X. Calvet, .
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A new eradication resistance index as a predictor of metronidazole-containing second-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori. Digestion 2007 T. Nishizawa, H. Suzuki, T. Masaoka, E. Iwasaki, T. Hibi
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Is there anything to the reported association between Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroiditis? Dig. Dis. Sci. 2005 PA. Tomasi, MP. Dore, G. Fanciulli, F. Sanciu, G. Realdi, G. Delitala
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In vivo evaluation of a colonic delivery system using isotope techniques. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2005 K. Verbeke, V. de Preter, K. Geboes, T. Daems, G. van den Mooter, P. Evenepoel, P. Rutgeerts
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How does lobeline injected intravenously produce a cough? Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2005 H. Raj, GS. Bakshi, RR. Tiwari, A. Anand, AS. Paintal
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Usefulness of non-invasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients undergoing dialysis for chronic renal failure. Helicobacter 2004 T. López, M. Quesada, J. Almirall, I. Sanfeliu, F. Segura, X. Calvet
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Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection. J. Gastroenterol. 2004 S. Kato, K. Nakayama, T. Minoura, M. Konno, H. Tajiri, T. Matsuhisa, K. Iinuma, .
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[Community-acquired pneumonia among the elderly: differences between patients living at home and in nursing homes]. Arch. Bronconeumol. 2004 E. Martínez-Moragón, L. García Ferrer, B. Serra Sanchis, E. Fernández Fabrellas, A. Gómez Belda, R. Julve Pardo
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Early Helicobacter pylori colonisation: the association with growth faltering in The Gambia. Arch. Dis. Child. 2004 JE. Thomas, A. Dale, JE. Bunn, M. Harding, WA. Coward, TJ. Cole, LT. Weaver
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Appropriate strategies for testing and treating Helicobacter pylori in children: when and how? Am. J. Med. 2004 PM. Sherman
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Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter pylori infection: design criteria for a clinical trial. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2004 JW. Fahey, A. Muñoz, Y. Matsuzaki, H. Suzuki, P. Talalay, M. Tauchi, S. Zhang, C. Hurt, A. Yanaka
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Ranitidine-bismuth citrate, tetracycline and metronidazole followed by triple therapy as alternative strategy for Helicobacter pylori treatment: a pilot study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004 X. Calvet, A. Montserrat, M. Güell, M. Vergara, E. Gené
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Recently published papers: take your predictions with a drop of saline... and breathe deeply before turning on your phone. Crit Care 2004 DJ. Semple, LG. Forni
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Immunological rapid urease test using monoclonal antibody for Helicobacter pylori. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2004 H. Nakata, H. Itoh, T. Ishiguchi, T. Iwata, H. Sato, Y. Higashimoto, H. Fujimoto, M. Ichinose
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13C-Urea breath test, using a new compact nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrophotometer: comparison with mass spectrometry. J. Gastroenterol. 2004 M. Kato, M. Saito, S. Fukuda, C. Kato, S. Ohara, S. Hamada, R. Nagashima, K. Obara, M. Suzuki, H. Honda, M. Asaka, T. Toyota
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A phase II feasibility study of carboplatin followed by sequential weekly paclitaxel and gemcitabine as first-line treatment for ovarian cancer. Br. J. Cancer 2004 M. Harries, C. Moss, T. Perren, M. Gore, G. Hall, M. Everard, R. A'Hern, I. Gibbens, A. Jenkins, R. Shah, C. Cole, O. Pizzada, S. Kaye
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Studies regarding the mechanism of false negative urea breath tests with proton pump inhibitors. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2003 DY. Graham, AR. Opekun, F. Hammoud, Y. Yamaoka, R. Reddy, MS. Osato, HM. El-Zimaity
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A negative rapid urease test is unreliable for exclusion of Helicobacter pylori infection during acute phase of ulcer bleeding. A prospective case control study. Dig Liver Dis 2003 D. Schilling, A. Demel, HE. Adamek, T. Nüsse, E. Weidmann, JF. Riemann
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One-week triple therapy with esomeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole provides effective eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 S. Veldhuyzen Van Zanten, S. Machado, J. Lee
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Exhaled NO level and number of eosinophils in nasal lavage as markers of pollen-induced upper and lower airway inflammation in children sensitive to grass pollen. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2003 JG. van Amsterdam, EW. Bischoff, A. de Klerk, AP. Verlaan, LM. Jongbloets, H. van Loveren, A. Opperhuizen, G. Zomer, M. Hady, FT. Spieksma, JA. Dormans, PA. Steerenberg
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Empirical prescribing for dyspepsia: randomised controlled trial of test and treat versus omeprazole treatment. BMJ 2003 G. Manes, A. Menchise, C. de Nucci, A. Balzano
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Is the recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection after eradication therapy resultant from recrudescence or reinfection, in Japan. Helicobacter 2003 T. Okimoto, K. Murakami, R. Sato, H. Miyajima, M. Nasu, J. Kagawa, M. Kodama, T. Fujioka
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Helicobacter pylori, gastrointestinal symptoms, and metabolic control in young type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Pediatrics 2003 M. Candelli, D. Rigante, G. Marietti, EC. Nista, F. Crea, F. Bartolozzi, A. Schiavino, G. Pignataro, NG. Silveri, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini
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Measuring total body water in peritoneal dialysis patients using an ethanol dilution technique. Kidney Int. 1999 NV. Dahl, EF. Foote, T. Kapoian, CA. Steward, RA. Sherman
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Associated curated diseases 2

Download diseases

Associated disease mapping

Mapping of all associated diseases to urea is displayed in red.

Heart Lung Airway Esophagus Kidney Intestine
Disease Name

with link to disease page

Description of MeSH term

with link to MeSH Database

Number of references
Asthma MeSH: Asthma
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Link to MeSH Database: D001249
91
Cystic Fibrosis MeSH: Cystic Fibrosis
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION. Year introduced: 1967
Link to MeSH Database: D003550
20

Associated abnormalities 51

Concept Name External ID Weighted Score Hits References
Infection, H Pylori 989.09 20
  1. Histological predictors of active Helicobacter pylori infection.
    DO. Faigel, EE. Furth, M. Childs, J. Goin, DC. Metz (1996) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  2. Prospective evaluation of a new urea-membrane test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric antral tissue.
    EL. Young, TK. Sharma, AF. Cutler (1996) Gastrointest. Endosc.
  3. Comparison of invasive and noninvasive tests for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in bleeding peptic ulcers.
    TC. Tu, CL. Lee, CH. Wu, TK. Chen, CC. Chan, SH. Huang, SC. Lee MS (1999) Gastrointest. Endosc.
  4. Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    T. Mock, R. Yatscoff, R. Foster, JH. Hyun, IS. Chung, CS. Shim, B. Yacyshyn (1999) Clin. Biochem.
  5. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
  6. Evaluation of [13C]urea breath test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children from a developing country.
    L. de Carvalho Costa Cardinali, GA. Rocha, AM. Rocha, SB. de Moura, T. de Figueiredo Soares, AM. Esteves, AM. Nogueira, MM. Cabral, AS. de Carvalho, P. Bitencourt, A. Ferreira, DM. Queiroz (2003) J. Clin. Microbiol.
  7. Levofloxacin based triple therapy as a second-line treatment after failure of helicobacter pylori eradication with standard triple therapy.
    Y. Watanabe, N. Aoyama, D. Shirasaka, S. Maekawa, K. Kuroda, I. Miki, M. Kachi, M. Fukuda, C. Wambura, T. Tamura, M. Kasuga (2003) Dig Liver Dis
  8. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  9. Helicobacter pylori diagnosis in patients with liver cirrhosis.
    L. Sanchez-Mete, A. Zullo, C. Hassan, V. Rinaldi, MS. Magno, F. Festuccia, S. Morini, AF. Attili (2003) Dig Liver Dis
  10. Contribution of the gastrointestinal tract below the stomach to the 13C-urea breath test.
    TH. Lee, JC. Yang, SC. Lee, SS. Farn, TH. Wang (2003) Dig Liver Dis
  11. Is there any correlation between 13C-urea breath test values and response to first-line and rescue Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies?
    JP. Gisbert, D. Olivares, I. Jimenez, JM. Pajares (2006) Dig Liver Dis
  12. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: A prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study.
    L. Kupcinskas, P. Lafolie, A. Lignell, G. Kiudelis, L. Jonaitis, K. Adamonis, LP. Andersen, T. Wadström (2008) Phytomedicine
  13. Sequential therapy compared with standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.
    P. Albrecht, M. Kotowska, H. Szajewska (2011) J. Pediatr.
  14. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial.
    ER. Greenberg, GL. Anderson, DR. Morgan, J. Torres, WD. Chey, LE. Bravo, RL. Dominguez, C. Ferreccio, R. Herrero, EC. Lazcano-Ponce, MM. Meza-Montenegro, R. Peña, EM. Peña, E. Salazar-Martínez, P. Correa, ME. Martínez, M. Valdivieso, GE. Goodman, JJ. Crowley, LH. Baker (2011) Lancet
  15. Functional 13C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection.
    D. Enko, G. Kriegshäuser (2017) Clin. Biochem.
Helicobacter Infections 1000.0 4
  1. Non-endoscopic tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    JC. Atherton (1997) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Six-day or seven-day regimens with ranitidine bismuth citrate plus high-dose clarithromycin and tinidazole are both effective against Helicobacter pylori infection.
    G. Cammarota, O. Cannizzaro, R. Cianci, A. Armuzzi, A. Gasbarrini, A. Pastorelli, A. Papa, G. Gasbarrini (1999) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  3. Diagnostic efficacy of (13)C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients.
    JJ. Huang, CJ. Huang, MK. Ruaan, KW. Chen, TS. Yen, BS. Sheu (2000) Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  4. Contribution of the gastrointestinal tract below the stomach to the 13C-urea breath test.
    TH. Lee, JC. Yang, SC. Lee, SS. Farn, TH. Wang (2003) Dig Liver Dis
Curb 1000.0 4
  1. Community-acquired pneumonia in younger patients is an entity on its own.
    B. Klapdor, S. Ewig, MW. Pletz, G. Rohde, H. Schütte, T. Schaberg, T. Welte, . (2012) Eur. Respir. J.
  2. Prognostic power of proadrenomedullin in community-acquired pneumonia is independent of aetiology.
    S. Bello, AB. Lasierra, E. Mincholé, S. Fandos, MA. Ruiz, E. Vera, F. de Pablo, M. Ferrer, R. Menendez, A. Torres (2012) Eur. Respir. J.
Ulcerative Colitis ICD9-CM:556.9 543.55 3
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Dehydration 937.83 2
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Uremia 1000.0 2
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Kidney Failure ICD9-CM:586 964.29 2
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Encephalopathies 937.5 2
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Dyspepsia 1000.0 2
  1. A simple method for estimating respiratory solute dilution in exhaled breath condensates.
    RM. Effros, J. Biller, B. Foss, K. Hoagland, MB. Dunning, D. Castillo, M. Bosbous, F. Sun, R. Shaker (2003) Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
  2. Concomitant, bismuth quadruple, and 14-day triple therapy in the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori: a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial.
    JM. Liou, YJ. Fang, CC. Chen, MJ. Bair, CY. Chang, YC. Lee, MJ. Chen, CC. Chen, CH. Tseng, YC. Hsu, JY. Lee, TH. Yang, JC. Luo, CC. Chang, CY. Chen, PY. Chen, CT. Shun, WF. Hsu, WH. Hu, YN. Chen, BS. Sheu, JT. Lin, JY. Wu, EM. El-Omar, MS. Wu, . (2016) Lancet
Infection 1000.0 2
  1. 13C-urea breath test in children with Helicobacter pylori infection: validity of the use of a mask to collect exhaled breath samples.
    PS. Ganga-Zandzou, P. Vincent, L. Michaud, D. Guimber, D. Turck, F. Gottrand (2001) Acta Paediatr.
  2. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Fibrillation 928.54 1
  1. Static hyperinflation is associated with decreased peak exercise performance in children with cystic fibrosis.
    AD. Sovtic, PB. Minic, J. Kosutic, GP. Markovic-Sovtic, MB. Gajic (2013) Respir Care
Upper gastrointestinal disorders 1000.0 1
  1. Concomitant, bismuth quadruple, and 14-day triple therapy in the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori: a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial.
    JM. Liou, YJ. Fang, CC. Chen, MJ. Bair, CY. Chang, YC. Lee, MJ. Chen, CC. Chen, CH. Tseng, YC. Hsu, JY. Lee, TH. Yang, JC. Luo, CC. Chang, CY. Chen, PY. Chen, CT. Shun, WF. Hsu, WH. Hu, YN. Chen, BS. Sheu, JT. Lin, JY. Wu, EM. El-Omar, MS. Wu, . (2016) Lancet
Hereditary Diseases 877.87 1
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
Bleeding ulcer 1000.0 1
  1. A negative rapid urease test is unreliable for exclusion of Helicobacter pylori infection during acute phase of ulcer bleeding. A prospective case control study.
    D. Schilling, A. Demel, HE. Adamek, T. Nüsse, E. Weidmann, JF. Riemann (2003) Dig Liver Dis
Duodenogastric Reflux 1000.0 1
  1. Contribution of the gastrointestinal tract below the stomach to the 13C-urea breath test.
    TH. Lee, JC. Yang, SC. Lee, SS. Farn, TH. Wang (2003) Dig Liver Dis
Symptomatic dermographism ICD9-CM:708.3 860.0 1
  1. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Hepatitis C 1000.0 1
  1. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Hepatitis B 1000.0 1
  1. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Urticaria ICD9-CM:708.9 1000.0 1
  1. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Idiopathic urticaria 1000.0 1
  1. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Blood Coagulation Disorders 573.65 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori diagnosis in patients with liver cirrhosis.
    L. Sanchez-Mete, A. Zullo, C. Hassan, V. Rinaldi, MS. Magno, F. Festuccia, S. Morini, AF. Attili (2003) Dig Liver Dis
Nonulcer dyspepsia 1000.0 1
  1. Is there any correlation between 13C-urea breath test values and response to first-line and rescue Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies?
    JP. Gisbert, D. Olivares, I. Jimenez, JM. Pajares (2006) Dig Liver Dis
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 376.53 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Anuria 1000.0 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Little's Disease 687.5 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Diabetes 1000.0 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Acidosis, Lactic 968.75 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Virus Diseases 964.29 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency 743.59 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Methylmalonic acidemia 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Propionic acidemia 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency 951.22 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Congenital Disorders 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Malnutrition 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Renal tubular acidosis 965.86 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency Disease 918.37 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency Disease 897.44 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2 705.88 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Reye Syndrome 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency 933.96 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Carnitine deficiency 933.5 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Kidney Failure, Chronic 956.52 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Liver diseases 914.79 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Rare Diseases 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Hyperargininemia 943.5 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency 803.92 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
comatose 750.0 1
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
Hyperinsulinism 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Enzyme Deficiency 983.32 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Peptic Ulcer ICD9-CM:533 1000.0 1
  1. Is there any correlation between 13C-urea breath test values and response to first-line and rescue Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies?
    JP. Gisbert, D. Olivares, I. Jimenez, JM. Pajares (2006) Dig Liver Dis
Primary infection NOS 971.81 1
  1. 13C-urea breath test in children with Helicobacter pylori infection: validity of the use of a mask to collect exhaled breath samples.
    PS. Ganga-Zandzou, P. Vincent, L. Michaud, D. Guimber, D. Turck, F. Gottrand (2001) Acta Paediatr.

Associated chemicals 62

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Ammonium 987.5 5
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Helicobacter pylori eradication can induce platelet recovery in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
    G. Emilia, G. Longo, M. Luppi, G. Gandini, M. Morselli, L. Ferrara, S. Amarri, K. Cagossi, G. Torelli (2001) Blood
  3. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Nitrogen CHEBI:17997 957.55 5
  1. Studies regarding the mechanism of false negative urea breath tests with proton pump inhibitors.
    DY. Graham, AR. Opekun, F. Hammoud, Y. Yamaoka, R. Reddy, MS. Osato, HM. El-Zimaity (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.
    A. Kindermann, AI. Lopes (2009) Helicobacter
  4. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Bicarbonates 958.33 4
  1. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
  2. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
  3. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Cyanates 923.0 3
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Carbonic Acid 1000.0 3
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. Functional 13C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection.
    D. Enko, G. Kriegshäuser (2017) Clin. Biochem.
Amides 888.67 3
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Helicobacter pylori, parietal cell antibodies and autoimmune gastropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    CE. De Block, IH. De Leeuw, JJ. Bogers, PA. Pelckmans, MM. Ieven, EA. Van Marck, V. Van Hoof, E. Máday, KL. Van Acker, LF. Van Gaal (2002) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Nonionic detergent 933.5 2
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Carboxylic Acids CHEBI:33575 1000.0 2
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
piperidine 914.0 2
  1. Role of Helicobacter species in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
    S. Zhang, B. Zhong, K. Chao, Y. Xiao, Y. Cui, X. Gao, B. Chen, Y. He, P. Hu, M. Chen, HM. Mitchell (2011) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Saline 930.25 2
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Carbonates 873.5 2
  1. Diagnostic accuracy of the C-urea breath test in children: adjustment of the cut-off value according to age.
    HR. Yang, JK. Seo (2005) J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  2. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Isotopes 935.0 2
  1. Radiation dose estimates for the carbon-14-labeled urea breath test.
    JB. Stubbs, BJ. Marshall (1993) J. Nucl. Med.
  2. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
Anions 860.67 2
  1. Do Japanese and Swedish peptic ulcer patients respond differently to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies and what are their histological features?
    P. Unge, K. Kimura, P. Sipponen, P. Ekström, K. Satoh, M. Hellblom, B. Ohlin, A. Stubberöd, K. Kihira, T. Yube, Y. Yoshida (2003) Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. FRAGMATIC: a randomised phase III clinical trial investigating the effect of fragmin added to standard therapy in patients with lung cancer.
    GO. Griffiths, S. Burns, SI. Noble, FR. Macbeth, D. Cohen, TS. Maughan (2009) BMC Cancer
Carbon CHEBI:33415 972.0 2
  1. Prospective evaluation of a new urea-membrane test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric antral tissue.
    EL. Young, TK. Sharma, AF. Cutler (1996) Gastrointest. Endosc.
  2. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Bismuth CHEBI:33301 953.75 2
  1. Is there any correlation between 13C-urea breath test values and response to first-line and rescue Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies?
    JP. Gisbert, D. Olivares, I. Jimenez, JM. Pajares (2006) Dig Liver Dis
Carbohydrates CHEBI:16646 808.54 2
  1. Metabolism of glycosyl ureides by human intestinal brush border enzymes.
    FM. Ruemmele, WE. Heine, KM. Keller, MJ. Lentze (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Sulfates, Inorganic 628.21 2
  1. Application of visible-light photocatalysis with nitrogen-doped or unmodified titanium dioxide for control of indoor-level volatile organic compounds.
    WK. Jo, JT. Kim (2009) J. Hazard. Mater.
Non-protein nitrogen 1000.0 1
  1. Radiation dose estimates for the carbon-14-labeled urea breath test.
    JB. Stubbs, BJ. Marshall (1993) J. Nucl. Med.
Carbon 13 916.5 1
  1. Comparison of invasive and noninvasive tests for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in bleeding peptic ulcers.
    TC. Tu, CL. Lee, CH. Wu, TK. Chen, CC. Chan, SH. Huang, SC. Lee MS (1999) Gastrointest. Endosc.
WATER,DISTILLED 1000.0 1
  1. Unsedated transnasal EGD: an alternative approach to conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy for documenting Helicobacter pylori eradication.
    K. Saeian, WF. Townsend, FA. Rochling, E. Bardan, K. Dua, S. Phadnis, BE. Dunn, K. Darnell, R. Shaker (1999) Gastrointest. Endosc.
Phloretin 1000.0 1
  1. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
Polycose 930.5 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic chronic urticaria.
    E. Daudén, I. Jiménez-Alonso, A. García-Díez (2000) Int. J. Dermatol.
Amber 944.0 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
2-fluoroaniline 867.0 1
  1. Role of Helicobacter species in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
    S. Zhang, B. Zhong, K. Chao, Y. Xiao, Y. Cui, X. Gao, B. Chen, Y. He, P. Hu, M. Chen, HM. Mitchell (2011) J. Clin. Microbiol.
triethylammonium bicarbonate 571.43 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
Marble 930.5 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Ammonia nitrogen 1000.0 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Water Specimen 955.79 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 878.0 1
  1. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht 2-2000 Consensus Report.
    P. Malfertheiner, F. Mégraud, C. O'Morain, AP. Hungin, R. Jones, A. Axon, DY. Graham, G. Tytgat, . (2002) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
carbonyl group 1000.0 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
4-hydroxy 3-methoxybenzylamine 885.5 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori, parietal cell antibodies and autoimmune gastropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    CE. De Block, IH. De Leeuw, JJ. Bogers, PA. Pelckmans, MM. Ieven, EA. Van Marck, V. Van Hoof, E. Máday, KL. Van Acker, LF. Van Gaal (2002) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Isocyanates 954.55 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori, parietal cell antibodies and autoimmune gastropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    CE. De Block, IH. De Leeuw, JJ. Bogers, PA. Pelckmans, MM. Ieven, EA. Van Marck, V. Van Hoof, E. Máday, KL. Van Acker, LF. Van Gaal (2002) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Alkalies 872.75 1
  1. [Comparison between two 13C-urea breath tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: isotope ratio mass spectrometer versus infrared spectrometer].
    JP. Gisbert, F. Gomollón, JE. Domínguez-Muñoz, F. Borda, I. Jiménez, MA. Vázquez, S. Gallego, J. Iglesias, G. Pastor, JM. Pajares (2003) Gastroenterol Hepatol
Plant Extracts 971.6 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Oxides 860.67 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Nitrate 892.5 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Radioisotopes 1000.0 1
  1. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
Growth Factor 763.15 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
triphosphate 915.17 1
  1. Is the stool test out of breath?
    N. Vakil (2000) Dig Liver Dis
Organic solvent product 778.33 1
  1. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection improves blood pressure values in patients affected by hypertension.
    A. Migneco, V. Ojetti, L. Specchia, F. Franceschi, M. Candelli, M. Mettimano, R. Montebelli, L. Savi, G. Gasbarrini (2003) Helicobacter
Glycoconjugates 901.0 1
  1. Breath sample collection through the nostril reduces false-positive results of 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection.
    Y. Urita, K. Hike, N. Torii, Y. Kikuchi, E. Kanda, H. Kurakata, M. Sasajima, K. Miki (2004) Dig Liver Dis
Heptanone 879.5 1
  1. Breath sample collection through the nostril reduces false-positive results of 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection.
    Y. Urita, K. Hike, N. Torii, Y. Kikuchi, E. Kanda, H. Kurakata, M. Sasajima, K. Miki (2004) Dig Liver Dis
Hydroxyl Radical CHEBI:29191 1000.0 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Methylamines 1000.0 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Diamond 1000.0 1
  1. Do Japanese and Swedish peptic ulcer patients respond differently to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies and what are their histological features?
    P. Unge, K. Kimura, P. Sipponen, P. Ekström, K. Satoh, M. Hellblom, B. Ohlin, A. Stubberöd, K. Kihira, T. Yube, Y. Yoshida (2003) Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
Chlorides 916.44 1
  1. Do Japanese and Swedish peptic ulcer patients respond differently to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies and what are their histological features?
    P. Unge, K. Kimura, P. Sipponen, P. Ekström, K. Satoh, M. Hellblom, B. Ohlin, A. Stubberöd, K. Kihira, T. Yube, Y. Yoshida (2003) Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
2-Mercaptoethanol 847.18 1
  1. Influence of the physiological changes of gastric emptying on the simplified single sample 14 C-urea breath test.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, PR. Franken, B. Georges, D. Urbain (2002) Nucl Med Commun
Metronidazole 500 MG 1000.0 1
  1. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial.
    ER. Greenberg, GL. Anderson, DR. Morgan, J. Torres, WD. Chey, LE. Bravo, RL. Dominguez, C. Ferreccio, R. Herrero, EC. Lazcano-Ponce, MM. Meza-Montenegro, R. Peña, EM. Peña, E. Salazar-Martínez, P. Correa, ME. Martínez, M. Valdivieso, GE. Goodman, JJ. Crowley, LH. Baker (2011) Lancet
Clarithromycin 500 MG 1000.0 1
  1. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial.
    ER. Greenberg, GL. Anderson, DR. Morgan, J. Torres, WD. Chey, LE. Bravo, RL. Dominguez, C. Ferreccio, R. Herrero, EC. Lazcano-Ponce, MM. Meza-Montenegro, R. Peña, EM. Peña, E. Salazar-Martínez, P. Correa, ME. Martínez, M. Valdivieso, GE. Goodman, JJ. Crowley, LH. Baker (2011) Lancet
Amoxicillin 1000 MG 1000.0 1
  1. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial.
    ER. Greenberg, GL. Anderson, DR. Morgan, J. Torres, WD. Chey, LE. Bravo, RL. Dominguez, C. Ferreccio, R. Herrero, EC. Lazcano-Ponce, MM. Meza-Montenegro, R. Peña, EM. Peña, E. Salazar-Martínez, P. Correa, ME. Martínez, M. Valdivieso, GE. Goodman, JJ. Crowley, LH. Baker (2011) Lancet
lansoprazole 30 MG 1000.0 1
  1. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial.
    ER. Greenberg, GL. Anderson, DR. Morgan, J. Torres, WD. Chey, LE. Bravo, RL. Dominguez, C. Ferreccio, R. Herrero, EC. Lazcano-Ponce, MM. Meza-Montenegro, R. Peña, EM. Peña, E. Salazar-Martínez, P. Correa, ME. Martínez, M. Valdivieso, GE. Goodman, JJ. Crowley, LH. Baker (2011) Lancet
Glycine solution 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Protons CHEBI:24636 891.32 1
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Fumarates 944.44 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Keto Acids 933.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
amino group 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
cofactor 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Boiled water 948.17 1
  1. Metabolism of glycosyl ureides by human intestinal brush border enzymes.
    FM. Ruemmele, WE. Heine, KM. Keller, MJ. Lentze (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Citrates CHEBI:50744 819.0 1
  1. Diagnostic efficacy of (13)C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients.
    JJ. Huang, CJ. Huang, MK. Ruaan, KW. Chen, TS. Yen, BS. Sheu (2000) Am. J. Kidney Dis.
cellobiose-ureide 1000.0 1
  1. Metabolism of glycosyl ureides by human intestinal brush border enzymes.
    FM. Ruemmele, WE. Heine, KM. Keller, MJ. Lentze (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta
lactose ureide 1000.0 1
  1. Metabolism of glycosyl ureides by human intestinal brush border enzymes.
    FM. Ruemmele, WE. Heine, KM. Keller, MJ. Lentze (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Hydrogen, Homeopathic preparation 621.21 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.

Associated functions 86

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Denaturation 947.86 19
  1. Improving management of duodenal ulcer disease.
    MC. Bateson, BL. Diffey (1997) Postgrad Med J
  2. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. 13C-urea breath test.
    DY. Graham, PD. Klein (2000) Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in persons with intellectual disability in residential care in Israel.
    J. Merrick, S. Aspler, I. Dubman (2001) ScientificWorldJournal
  4. Twenty-minute 50 mg 13C-urea breath test without test meal for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese.
    WM. Wong, BC. Wong, TM. Li, KW. Wong, KL. Cheung, FM. Fung, HH. Xia, SK. Lam (2001) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  5. Influence of the physiological changes of gastric emptying on the simplified single sample 14 C-urea breath test.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, PR. Franken, B. Georges, D. Urbain (2002) Nucl Med Commun
  6. [Advantages and limitations of diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection].
    JD. De Korwin (2003) Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  7. Evaluation of protocol using gene capture and PCR for detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in feces.
    WG. MacKay, CL. Williams, M. McMillan, RN. Ndip, AJ. Shepherd, LT. Weaver (2003) J. Clin. Microbiol.
  8. Do Japanese and Swedish peptic ulcer patients respond differently to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies and what are their histological features?
    P. Unge, K. Kimura, P. Sipponen, P. Ekström, K. Satoh, M. Hellblom, B. Ohlin, A. Stubberöd, K. Kihira, T. Yube, Y. Yoshida (2003) Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  9. A combination of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test and urea breath test is useful for clinical evaluation of eradication therapy: a multicenter study.
    M. Ito, S. Tanaka, S. Kim, K. Tahara, Y. Kawamura, M. Sumii, Y. Takehara, K. Hayashi, E. Okamoto, M. Kunihiro, T. Kunita, S. Imagawa, S. Takata, H. Ueda, Y. Egi, T. Hiyama, Y. Ueno, Y. Kitadai, M. Yoshihara, K. Chayama (2005) J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  10. Sequential and concomitant therapy with four drugs is equally effective for eradication of H pylori infection.
    DC. Wu, PI. Hsu, JY. Wu, AR. Opekun, CH. Kuo, IC. Wu, SS. Wang, A. Chen, WC. Hung, DY. Graham (2010) Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
urea cycle GO:0000050 936.54 15
  1. The influence of isolated doses of drugs, feeding and colonic bacterial ureolysis on urea breath test results.
    F. Perri, B. Maes, B. Geypens, Y. Ghoos, M. Hiele, P. Rutgeerts (1995) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  3. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  4. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and duodenogastric reflux before and after eradication in Helicobacter pylori gastritis.
    DK. Manifold, A. Anggiansah, I. Rowe, JD. Sanderson, CN. Chinyama, WJ. Owen (2001) Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  5. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  6. Comparison of a monoclonal with a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay stool test in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication therapy.
    J. Domínguez, M. Forné, S. Blanco, C. Prat, N. Galí, I. Latorre, JM. Viver, V. Ausina (2006) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  7. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
  8. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
urease activity 980.11 11
  1. Prospective evaluation of a new urea-membrane test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric antral tissue.
    EL. Young, TK. Sharma, AF. Cutler (1996) Gastrointest. Endosc.
  2. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  3. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  4. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
  5. Contribution of the gastrointestinal tract below the stomach to the 13C-urea breath test.
    TH. Lee, JC. Yang, SC. Lee, SS. Farn, TH. Wang (2003) Dig Liver Dis
  6. Is there any correlation between 13C-urea breath test values and response to first-line and rescue Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies?
    JP. Gisbert, D. Olivares, I. Jimenez, JM. Pajares (2006) Dig Liver Dis
  7. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
  8. Functional 13C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection.
    D. Enko, G. Kriegshäuser (2017) Clin. Biochem.
Synthesis 935.58 9
  1. The influence of isolated doses of drugs, feeding and colonic bacterial ureolysis on urea breath test results.
    F. Perri, B. Maes, B. Geypens, Y. Ghoos, M. Hiele, P. Rutgeerts (1995) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  3. Rosacea: a cutaneous marker of Helicobacter pylori infection? Results of a pilot study.
    C. Diaz, CJ. O'Callaghan, A. Khan, A. Ilchyshyn (2003) Acta Derm. Venereol.
  4. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
  5. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Excretory function 666.5 8
  1. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  2. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and duodenogastric reflux before and after eradication in Helicobacter pylori gastritis.
    DK. Manifold, A. Anggiansah, I. Rowe, JD. Sanderson, CN. Chinyama, WJ. Owen (2001) Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  3. The effect of eradicating helicobacter pylori on the development of gastric cancer in patients with peptic ulcer disease.
    S. Take, M. Mizuno, K. Ishiki, Y. Nagahara, T. Yoshida, K. Yokota, K. Oguma, H. Okada, Y. Shiratori (2005) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  4. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
  5. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
inhibitors 883.81 8
  1. High Helicobacter pylori numbers are associated with low eradication rate after triple therapy.
    M. Moshkowitz, FM. Konikoff, Y. Peled, M. Santo, A. Hallak, Y. Bujanover, E. Tiomny, T. Gilat (1995) Gut
  2. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  3. Twenty-minute 50 mg 13C-urea breath test without test meal for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese.
    WM. Wong, BC. Wong, TM. Li, KW. Wong, KL. Cheung, FM. Fung, HH. Xia, SK. Lam (2001) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  4. Helicobacter pylori eradication can induce platelet recovery in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
    G. Emilia, G. Longo, M. Luppi, G. Gandini, M. Morselli, L. Ferrara, S. Amarri, K. Cagossi, G. Torelli (2001) Blood
  5. Helicobacter pylori, parietal cell antibodies and autoimmune gastropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    CE. De Block, IH. De Leeuw, JJ. Bogers, PA. Pelckmans, MM. Ieven, EA. Van Marck, V. Van Hoof, E. Máday, KL. Van Acker, LF. Van Gaal (2002) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  6. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
  7. Role of Helicobacter species in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
    S. Zhang, B. Zhong, K. Chao, Y. Xiao, Y. Cui, X. Gao, B. Chen, Y. He, P. Hu, M. Chen, HM. Mitchell (2011) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Detergents 897.5 5
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  3. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection improves blood pressure values in patients affected by hypertension.
    A. Migneco, V. Ojetti, L. Specchia, F. Franceschi, M. Candelli, M. Mettimano, R. Montebelli, L. Savi, G. Gasbarrini (2003) Helicobacter
  4. Breath sample collection through the nostril reduces false-positive results of 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection.
    Y. Urita, K. Hike, N. Torii, Y. Kikuchi, E. Kanda, H. Kurakata, M. Sasajima, K. Miki (2004) Dig Liver Dis
  5. Diagnostic accuracy of the C-urea breath test in children: adjustment of the cut-off value according to age.
    HR. Yang, JK. Seo (2005) J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
Mutation 1000.0 5
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. Helicobacter pylori infection in persons with intellectual disability in residential care in Israel.
    J. Merrick, S. Aspler, I. Dubman (2001) ScientificWorldJournal
  3. Twenty-minute 50 mg 13C-urea breath test without test meal for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese.
    WM. Wong, BC. Wong, TM. Li, KW. Wong, KL. Cheung, FM. Fung, HH. Xia, SK. Lam (2001) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  4. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
  5. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
Ingestion 944.0 5
  1. Metabolism of glycosyl ureides by human intestinal brush border enzymes.
    FM. Ruemmele, WE. Heine, KM. Keller, MJ. Lentze (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  2. Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    T. Mock, R. Yatscoff, R. Foster, JH. Hyun, IS. Chung, CS. Shim, B. Yacyshyn (1999) Clin. Biochem.
  3. Carbon urea breath test is not as accurate as endoscopy to detect Helicobacter pylori after gastrectomy.
    BS. Sheu, SC. Lee, PW. Lin, ST. Wang, YC. Chang, HB. Yang, CH. Chuang, XZ. Lin (2000) Gastrointest. Endosc.
  4. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
  5. Prognostic value of procalcitonin in community-acquired pneumonia.
    P. Schuetz, I. Suter-Widmer, A. Chaudri, M. Christ-Crain, W. Zimmerli, B. Mueller, . (2011) Eur. Respir. J.
urea transport 967.5 4
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  3. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  4. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Membrane Potentials 969.56 4
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
enzyme activity 1000.0 4
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
  2. How does lobeline injected intravenously produce a cough?
    H. Raj, GS. Bakshi, RR. Tiwari, A. Anand, AS. Paintal (2005) Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  3. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Gastric Emptying 985.86 4
  1. Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    T. Mock, R. Yatscoff, R. Foster, JH. Hyun, IS. Chung, CS. Shim, B. Yacyshyn (1999) Clin. Biochem.
  2. Carbon urea breath test is not as accurate as endoscopy to detect Helicobacter pylori after gastrectomy.
    BS. Sheu, SC. Lee, PW. Lin, ST. Wang, YC. Chang, HB. Yang, CH. Chuang, XZ. Lin (2000) Gastrointest. Endosc.
  3. Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    L. Gatta, C. Ricci, A. Tampieri, D. Vaira (2003) Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
Drug Interactions 788.46 4
  1. Improving management of duodenal ulcer disease.
    MC. Bateson, BL. Diffey (1997) Postgrad Med J
  2. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  3. Evaluation of invasive and non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic children and adolescents.
    SK. Ogata, E. Kawakami, FR. Patrício, MZ. Pedroso, AM. Santos (2001) Sao Paulo Med J
  4. Twenty-minute 50 mg 13C-urea breath test without test meal for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese.
    WM. Wong, BC. Wong, TM. Li, KW. Wong, KL. Cheung, FM. Fung, HH. Xia, SK. Lam (2001) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Protein Carbonylation 982.38 3
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Hyperammonemia HP:0001987 995.5 3
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  2. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
uptake 908.83 2
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
Lysis 912.75 2
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Breath sample collection through the nostril reduces false-positive results of 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection.
    Y. Urita, K. Hike, N. Torii, Y. Kikuchi, E. Kanda, H. Kurakata, M. Sasajima, K. Miki (2004) Dig Liver Dis
Exocytosis GO:0006887 894.0 2
  1. Randomized clinical trial comparing ten day concomitant and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication in a high clarithromycin resistance area.
    SD. Georgopoulos, E. Xirouchakis, B. Martinez-Gonzales, E. Zampeli, E. Grivas, C. Spiliadi, M. Sotiropoulou, K. Petraki, K. Zografos, F. Laoudi, D. Sgouras, A. Mentis, P. Kasapidis, S. Michopoulos (2016) Eur. J. Intern. Med.
LIGHT SCATTERING 911.75 2
  1. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection improves blood pressure values in patients affected by hypertension.
    A. Migneco, V. Ojetti, L. Specchia, F. Franceschi, M. Candelli, M. Mettimano, R. Montebelli, L. Savi, G. Gasbarrini (2003) Helicobacter
Macromolecular alteration 923.84 2
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  2. Do Japanese and Swedish peptic ulcer patients respond differently to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies and what are their histological features?
    P. Unge, K. Kimura, P. Sipponen, P. Ekström, K. Satoh, M. Hellblom, B. Ohlin, A. Stubberöd, K. Kihira, T. Yube, Y. Yoshida (2003) Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
protonation 1000.0 2
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  2. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
acidification 944.0 2
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Protein Turnover 972.38 2
  1. 13 C-urea breath test with infrared spectroscopy for diagnosing helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents.
    E. Kawakami, RS. Machado, M. Reber, FR. Patrício (2002) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  2. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.
    A. Kindermann, AI. Lopes (2009) Helicobacter
Regulation 928.83 2
  1. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  2. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
Disability NOS 857.14 2
  1. Evaluation of [13C]urea breath test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children from a developing country.
    L. de Carvalho Costa Cardinali, GA. Rocha, AM. Rocha, SB. de Moura, T. de Figueiredo Soares, AM. Esteves, AM. Nogueira, MM. Cabral, AS. de Carvalho, P. Bitencourt, A. Ferreira, DM. Queiroz (2003) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Renal function 975.25 2
  1. 13 C-urea breath test with infrared spectroscopy for diagnosing helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents.
    E. Kawakami, RS. Machado, M. Reber, FR. Patrício (2002) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  2. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Liver function 950.5 2
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  2. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
arginase activity 1000.0 2
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
  2. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Protein Expression 975.25 2
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
  2. The effect of eradicating helicobacter pylori on the development of gastric cancer in patients with peptic ulcer disease.
    S. Take, M. Mizuno, K. Ishiki, Y. Nagahara, T. Yoshida, K. Yokota, K. Oguma, H. Okada, Y. Shiratori (2005) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
amino acid catabolism 952.5 2
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  2. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
transamination 1000.0 2
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
  2. Rosacea: a cutaneous marker of Helicobacter pylori infection? Results of a pilot study.
    C. Diaz, CJ. O'Callaghan, A. Khan, A. Ilchyshyn (2003) Acta Derm. Venereol.
Exhalation 843.33 2
  1. Is there any correlation between 13C-urea breath test values and response to first-line and rescue Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies?
    JP. Gisbert, D. Olivares, I. Jimenez, JM. Pajares (2006) Dig Liver Dis
  2. 14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial.
    ER. Greenberg, GL. Anderson, DR. Morgan, J. Torres, WD. Chey, LE. Bravo, RL. Dominguez, C. Ferreccio, R. Herrero, EC. Lazcano-Ponce, MM. Meza-Montenegro, R. Peña, EM. Peña, E. Salazar-Martínez, P. Correa, ME. Martínez, M. Valdivieso, GE. Goodman, JJ. Crowley, LH. Baker (2011) Lancet
Evolution 1000.0 2
  1. Influence of the physiological changes of gastric emptying on the simplified single sample 14 C-urea breath test.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, PR. Franken, B. Georges, D. Urbain (2002) Nucl Med Commun
  2. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
nitrogen utilization 1000.0 1
  1. Radiation dose estimates for the carbon-14-labeled urea breath test.
    JB. Stubbs, BJ. Marshall (1993) J. Nucl. Med.
Nitrogen retention 1000.0 1
  1. Radiation dose estimates for the carbon-14-labeled urea breath test.
    JB. Stubbs, BJ. Marshall (1993) J. Nucl. Med.
isomerase activity 1000.0 1
  1. Improving management of duodenal ulcer disease.
    MC. Bateson, BL. Diffey (1997) Postgrad Med J
flavor enhancers 1000.0 1
  1. Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    T. Mock, R. Yatscoff, R. Foster, JH. Hyun, IS. Chung, CS. Shim, B. Yacyshyn (1999) Clin. Biochem.
Facilitation 887.5 1
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
phospholipase activity 1000.0 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
purine nucleotide metabolism 1000.0 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
arginine catabolism 1000.0 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
enzyme pathway 1000.0 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
cytochrome activity 1000.0 1
  1. Randomized clinical trial comparing ten day concomitant and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication in a high clarithromycin resistance area.
    SD. Georgopoulos, E. Xirouchakis, B. Martinez-Gonzales, E. Zampeli, E. Grivas, C. Spiliadi, M. Sotiropoulou, K. Petraki, K. Zografos, F. Laoudi, D. Sgouras, A. Mentis, P. Kasapidis, S. Michopoulos (2016) Eur. J. Intern. Med.
ureide catabolism 973.13 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori eradication can induce platelet recovery in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
    G. Emilia, G. Longo, M. Luppi, G. Gandini, M. Morselli, L. Ferrara, S. Amarri, K. Cagossi, G. Torelli (2001) Blood
Passive Range of Motion function 750.0 1
  1. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht 2-2000 Consensus Report.
    P. Malfertheiner, F. Mégraud, C. O'Morain, AP. Hungin, R. Jones, A. Axon, DY. Graham, G. Tytgat, . (2002) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Renal Blood Flow 1000.0 1
  1. 13 C-urea breath test with infrared spectroscopy for diagnosing helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents.
    E. Kawakami, RS. Machado, M. Reber, FR. Patrício (2002) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
ribosome binding GO:0043022 1000.0 1
  1. [Comparison between two 13C-urea breath tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: isotope ratio mass spectrometer versus infrared spectrometer].
    JP. Gisbert, F. Gomollón, JE. Domínguez-Muñoz, F. Borda, I. Jiménez, MA. Vázquez, S. Gallego, J. Iglesias, G. Pastor, JM. Pajares (2003) Gastroenterol Hepatol
Gastric acidity 1000.0 1
  1. 13C-urea breath test using infrared spectroscopy: practical recommendations.
    F. Mana, HR. Ham, H. Reynaert, P. Franken, D. Urbain (2000) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Strand breaks 1000.0 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate 1000.0 1
  1. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria.
    DG. Federman, RS. Kirsner, JP. Moriarty, J. Concato (2003) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Protein-Protein Interaction 1000.0 1
  1. Evaluation of invasive and non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic children and adolescents.
    SK. Ogata, E. Kawakami, FR. Patrício, MZ. Pedroso, AM. Santos (2001) Sao Paulo Med J
Growth arrest 1000.0 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Blood Circulation GO:0008015 720.53 1
  1. Breath sample collection through the nostril reduces false-positive results of 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection.
    Y. Urita, K. Hike, N. Torii, Y. Kikuchi, E. Kanda, H. Kurakata, M. Sasajima, K. Miki (2004) Dig Liver Dis
Polymerization 1000.0 1
  1. How does lobeline injected intravenously produce a cough?
    H. Raj, GS. Bakshi, RR. Tiwari, A. Anand, AS. Paintal (2005) Respir Physiol Neurobiol
hyperosmotic response 1000.0 1
  1. The effect of eradicating helicobacter pylori on the development of gastric cancer in patients with peptic ulcer disease.
    S. Take, M. Mizuno, K. Ishiki, Y. Nagahara, T. Yoshida, K. Yokota, K. Oguma, H. Okada, Y. Shiratori (2005) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Force 914.0 1
  1. Do Japanese and Swedish peptic ulcer patients respond differently to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies and what are their histological features?
    P. Unge, K. Kimura, P. Sipponen, P. Ekström, K. Satoh, M. Hellblom, B. Ohlin, A. Stubberöd, K. Kihira, T. Yube, Y. Yoshida (2003) Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
heme biosynthesis 1000.0 1
  1. Comparison of a monoclonal with a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay stool test in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication therapy.
    J. Domínguez, M. Forné, S. Blanco, C. Prat, N. Galí, I. Latorre, JM. Viver, V. Ausina (2006) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
Sterility 832.89 1
  1. Comparison of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectroscopy for 13C-urea breath test.
    V. Savarino, GS. Mela, P. Zentilin, G. Bisso, M. Pivari, C. Mansi, MR. Mele, C. Bilardi, S. Vigneri, G. Celle (1999) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Fermentation 944.0 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Plasma osmolality 1000.0 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Ulcer 944.0 1
  1. Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    T. Mock, R. Yatscoff, R. Foster, JH. Hyun, IS. Chung, CS. Shim, B. Yacyshyn (1999) Clin. Biochem.
Cytokinesis of the fertilized ovum 544.15 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
Noise 830.0 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori in vivo diagnosis after food intake: results of simultaneous [15N]urea urine and [13C]acetate breath tests.
    P. Krumbiegel, DM. Müller (2000) Isotopes Environ Health Stud
protein folding GO:0006457 1000.0 1
  1. Static hyperinflation is associated with decreased peak exercise performance in children with cystic fibrosis.
    AD. Sovtic, PB. Minic, J. Kosutic, GP. Markovic-Sovtic, MB. Gajic (2013) Respir Care
chemical reaction 1000.0 1
  1. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial.
    L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. El-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, J. Spénard (2003) Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Mutagenesis 1000.0 1
  1. Static hyperinflation is associated with decreased peak exercise performance in children with cystic fibrosis.
    AD. Sovtic, PB. Minic, J. Kosutic, GP. Markovic-Sovtic, MB. Gajic (2013) Respir Care
Physiologic Organization 694.0 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Protective Agents 666.62 1
  1. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children.
    SA. Sarker, H. Mahmud, L. Davidsson, NH. Alam, T. Ahmed, N. Alam, MA. Salam, C. Beglinger, N. Gyr, GJ. Fuchs (2008) Gastroenterology
Phosphorylation 981.44 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
Base Pairing 817.0 1
  1. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--study of Helicobacter pylori by employing C13 urea breath test].
    M. Kato (2000) Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
Signal Transduction GO:0007165 632.34 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
Translation, Genetic 775.0 1
  1. [Comparison between two 13C-urea breath tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: isotope ratio mass spectrometer versus infrared spectrometer].
    JP. Gisbert, F. Gomollón, JE. Domínguez-Muñoz, F. Borda, I. Jiménez, MA. Vázquez, S. Gallego, J. Iglesias, G. Pastor, JM. Pajares (2003) Gastroenterol Hepatol
Fatty infiltration 950.5 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Citric Acid Cycle 764.71 1
  1. Comparison of a monoclonal with a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay stool test in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication therapy.
    J. Domínguez, M. Forné, S. Blanco, C. Prat, N. Galí, I. Latorre, JM. Viver, V. Ausina (2006) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
fatty acid oxidation 979.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Acidemia 945.67 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Functional disorder 719.97 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Fibrosis 1000.0 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori diagnosis in patients with liver cirrhosis.
    L. Sanchez-Mete, A. Zullo, C. Hassan, V. Rinaldi, MS. Magno, F. Festuccia, S. Morini, AF. Attili (2003) Dig Liver Dis
Cerebral Edema 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Alkalosis, Respiratory 948.27 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Polymorphism, Genetic 702.02 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Recurrence 944.0 1
  1. Clinical validation of the Helikit: a 13C urea breath test used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
    T. Mock, R. Yatscoff, R. Foster, JH. Hyun, IS. Chung, CS. Shim, B. Yacyshyn (1999) Clin. Biochem.
glutamate-ammonia ligase activity 939.39 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Pressure- physical agent 593.17 1
  1. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases.
    C. Faria, R. Zakout, M. Araújo (2013) Biomed. Pharmacother.
Oxidation 956.5 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.

Associated genes 10

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
N-carbamylglutamate 1000.0 2
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Gene Clusters 912.04 1
  1. Triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a comparison of pantoprazole once versus twice daily.
    KD. Bardhan, J. Dillon, AT. Axon, BT. Cooper, G. Tildesley, JI. Wyatt, G. Gatz, W. Braun (2000) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
AR gene EntrezGene:367 615.71 1
  1. Static hyperinflation is associated with decreased peak exercise performance in children with cystic fibrosis.
    AD. Sovtic, PB. Minic, J. Kosutic, GP. Markovic-Sovtic, MB. Gajic (2013) Respir Care
Protein Structure 1000.0 1
  1. Sensitivity of a novel stool antigen test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in adult outpatients before and after eradication therapy.
    V. Weingart, H. Rüssmann, S. Koletzko, J. Weingart, W. Höchter, M. Sackmann (2004) J. Clin. Microbiol.
OTC gene EntrezGene:5009 1000.0 1
  1. Delta13CO2 excretion and expression of dyspeptic symptoms in patients evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection by [13C] urea breath test.
    F. Franceschi, A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, E. Carloni, MA. Zocco, S. Di Caro, C. Padalino, RM. Genta, P. Pola, G. Gasbarrini, A. Gasbarrini (2002) Dig. Dis. Sci.
Prions 1000.0 1
  1. How does lobeline injected intravenously produce a cough?
    H. Raj, GS. Bakshi, RR. Tiwari, A. Anand, AS. Paintal (2005) Respir Physiol Neurobiol
synthetic peptide 900.15 1
  1. Twenty-minute 50 mg 13C-urea breath test without test meal for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese.
    WM. Wong, BC. Wong, TM. Li, KW. Wong, KL. Cheung, FM. Fung, HH. Xia, SK. Lam (2001) Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
FASTK Gene EntrezGene:10922 736.0 1
  1. A screening trial of Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen tests in saliva to identify an oral infection.
    KC. Yee, MH. Wei, HC. Yee, KD. Everett, HP. Yee, N. Hazeki-Talor (2013) Digestion
Dietary Proteins 968.75 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.
Krebs Henseleit cycle 1000.0 1
  1. Ammonium metabolism in humans.
    MM. Adeva, G. Souto, N. Blanco, C. Donapetry (2012) Metab. Clin. Exp.

Chemical Information

Formula CH4N2O
Mass 60.056
Synonyms urea
carbamide
Isourea
57-13-6
Carbonyldiamide
Ureophil
Carbamimidic acid
Carbonyldiamine
Urevert
Pseudourea
Ureaphil
Alphadrate
Aquadrate
Calmurid
Carbaderm
Keratinamin
Pastaron
Urepearl
Carbonyl diamide
Ultra Mide
PubChem CID 1176