Nitric oxide

Description

Description of Nitric oxide with associated disease summary

Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a known biomarker of lung inflammation. Many lung diseases are linked to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Endogenous NO is synthesized in small amounts by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Three isoforms of NOS, encoded by separate genes, have been characterized. Inducible NOS (iNOS) or NOS2 is constitutively expressed in normal human airway epithelium, and produces nM concentration of NO at sites of inflammation. Since initial report of NO detected in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of humans, NO has been the most widely used marker to date. An increased production of NO in inflammatory-immune processes is assumed to be a host defense mechanism of respiratory tract, but high levels of NO can also cause injury, and contribute to the pathobiology of respiratory tract diseases. This can be explained by the observation that NO is inved in different biochemical pathways, at different concentrations and at different redox status. NO plays a crucial role in lung diseases, most notably in asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), others include alveolitis, asbestosis, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea. Asthmatic patients generally have higher exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels compared to healthy subjects. To determine the major site of inflammation in asthma, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured, as FeNO is associated with small airways function in mild asthma. The result shows FeNO levels increased in asthma patients, even under mild and asymptomatic conditions (Thorax. (2005)). This is evident in both adults and children asthmatic patients (Swiss Med Wkly. (2004)). NO levels could be measured to monitor therapy response as well. For example, some studies have shown that eNO levels are reduced in patients receiving steroid-treatment (Respir Res. (2005), Thorax. (2005)). In the absence of corticosteroid treatment, or during acute exacerbation of asthma, FeNO is further increased in EBC of patients. In CF on the other hand, the FeNO level is either lower than or similar to that of in healthy subjects. One study reported that in stable CF, FeNO level is significantly lower in patients than in control subjects. In contrast, levels of NO2 in stable CF are significantly higher than in control subjects. Although the levels of NO2 and NO2/NO3 are higher during CF exacerbation stages compared to in stable stage, the difference is not significant. Obesity is the most common predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). OSAS is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Some studies have described the presence of inflammation in the nose, the uvula, the soft palate, and the plasma of OSAS patients, however, few reports have published available bronchial inflammation data in patients with OSAS.

Disease summary

Asthma

Higher NO levels are significantly higher in asthma patients compared to healthy subjects. FeNO levels are also higher in asthma patients, even under mild and asymptomatic conditions. In patients receiving steroid treatment, NO levels are reduced. In the absence of treatment, or during exacerbation, FeNO levels further increased in EBC of patients.

Asbestosis

Significantly higher levels of alveolar NO was reported in the EBC of patients with asbestosis. Interestingly, there were no differences between patients with asbestosis and healthy controls in exhaled NO concentrations measured at exhalation flow rates of 50ml/s, 100ml/s, or 200ml/s, but at the highest exhalation flow rate of 300ml/s the NO concentration tended to be higher in patients with asbestosis.

Cystic Fibrosis

FeNO levels in CF patients are either lower than or similar to that of in healthy subjects. In stable CF, FeNO levels are significantly lower in patients than in control subjects. In contrast, NO2 levels in stable CF are significantly higher than in control subjects. The difference between the levels of NO2 and NO2/NO3 in patients and control subjects are not significant though.

Inflammation

Significant reduction in levels of FeNO in EBC of patients after 16 weeks of omalizumab treatment.

Obesity

Significantly higher NO levels in OO (obese with obstructive sleep apnea) patients than in healthy subjects. No significant difference was seen between OO and ONO (obese without obstructive sleep apnea) patients.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Significantly higher NO levels in OO (obese with obstructive sleep apnea) patients than in healthy subjects. No significant difference was seen between OO and ONO (obese without obstructive sleep apnea) patients.

Summary of extracted biomedical information

Nitric oxide is associated with abnormalities such as Asthma, Candidiasis, Primary pulmonary hypertension, Atherosclerosis and AIRWAY DISEASE. The involved biomedical functions are known as Exhalation, Inflammation, soluble NSF attachment protein activity, Apoptosis and inhibitors. The associated genes/proteins with Nitric oxide are TNF gene, IRF1 gene and MAPK3 gene. Nitric oxide is associated with Boron, NITRATE AND NITRITE, Sulfhydryl Compounds and Superoxides.
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Associated references with human 237

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Journal Year Authors & PubMed Link
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J. Appl. Physiol. 2007 Mar;102(3):1028-33. PubMed:17110506
Is the "instant flow" option on the NIOX analyser needed? Med Eng Phys 2007 G. Malik, SW. Turner
Med Eng Phys 2007 Jan;29(1):72-5. PubMed:16531093
Exhaled biomarkers. Chest 2006 SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes
Chest 2006 Nov;130(5):1541-6. PubMed:17099035
Exhaled NO and breath condensate. Paediatr Respir Rev 2006 E. Baraldi, S. Carraro
Paediatr Respir Rev 2006 ;7 Suppl 1:S20-2. PubMed:16798565
Longitudinal monitoring of lung injury in children after acute chlorine exposure in a swimming pool. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2006 G. Bonetto, M. Corradi, S. Carraro, S. Zanconato, R. Alinovi, G. Folesani, L. Da Dalt, A. Mutti, E. Baraldi
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2006 Sep;174(5):545-9. PubMed:16763216
Noninvasive monitoring of airway inflammation and steroid reduction in children with asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2006 A. Zacharasiewicz, EM. Erin, A. Bush
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2006 Jun;6(3):155-60. PubMed:16670506
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration is increased in asbestosis and pleural plaques. Respirology 2006 A. Sandrini, AR. Johnson, PS. Thomas, DH. Yates
Respirology 2006 May;11(3):325-9. PubMed:16635093
Markers of lung disease in exhaled breath: nitric oxide. Biol Res Nurs 2006 J. Choi, LA. Hoffman, GW. Rodway, JM. Sethi
Biol Res Nurs 2006 Apr;7(4):241-55. PubMed:16581895
ATS Workshop Proceedings: Exhaled nitric oxide and nitric oxide oxidative metabolism in exhaled breath condensate: Executive summary. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2006 .
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2006 Apr;173(7):811-3. PubMed:16556701
Modulation of nitric oxide pathways: therapeutic potential in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 AE. Redington
Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Mar;533(1-3):263-76. PubMed:16466650
Variability of nitric oxide metabolites in exhaled breath condensate. Respir Med 2006 P. Franklin, A. Moeller, GL. Hall, F. Horak, H. Patterson, SM. Stick
Respir Med 2006 Jan;100(1):123-9. PubMed:15885998
Exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma and short-term PM2.5 exposure in Seattle. Environ. Health Perspect. 2005 TF. Mar, K. Jansen, K. Shepherd, T. Lumley, TV. Larson, JQ. Koenig
Environ. Health Perspect. 2005 Dec;113(12):1791-4. PubMed:16330366
The biology of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury: a tale of dynamism of NO production and consumption. Vascul. Pharmacol. 2005 N. Marczin
Vascul. Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;43(6):415-24. PubMed:16290246
Exhaled breath condensate as a method of sampling airway nitric oxide and other markers of inflammation. Med. Sci. Monit. 2005 J. Liu, PS. Thomas
Med. Sci. Monit. 2005 Aug;11(8):MT53-62. PubMed:16049390
Short and long-term effects of cigarette smoking independently influence exhaled nitric oxide concentration in asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2005 CP. McSharry, IC. McKay, R. Chaudhuri, E. Livingston, I. Fraser, NC. Thomson
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2005 Jul;116(1):88-93. PubMed:15990779
Analysis of growth factors and inflammatory cytokines in exhaled breath condensate from asthmatic children. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2005 TF. Leung, GW. Wong, FW. Ko, CY. Li, E. Yung, CW. Lam, TF. Fok
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2005 May;137(1):66-72. PubMed:15832052
Korea red ginseng water extract increases nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled breath. Nitric Oxide 2005 K. Han, IC. Shin, KJ. Choi, YP. Yun, JT. Hong, KW. Oh
Nitric Oxide 2005 May;12(3):159-62. PubMed:15797844
Does consumption of ethanol distort measurements of exhaled nitric oxide? Respir Med 2005 AW. Jones, M. Fransson, E. Maldonado-Holmertz
Respir Med 2005 Feb;99(2):196-9. PubMed:15715186
Clinical use of noninvasive measurements of airway inflammation in steroid reduction in children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2005 A. Zacharasiewicz, N. Wilson, C. Lex, EM. Erin, AM. Li, T. Hansel, M. Khan, A. Bush
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Exhaled breath measures of inflammation: are they useful in neonatal chronic lung disease? Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 CM. Harrison, CC. Andersen
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Epithelial inducible nitric oxide synthase activity is the major determinant of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath. Thorax 2004 C. Lane, D. Knight, S. Burgess, P. Franklin, F. Horak, J. Legg, A. Moeller, S. Stick
Thorax 2004 Sep;59(9):757-60. PubMed:15333851
[Non-invasive methods for monitoring airway inflammation: a comparison of expenditures, gain and clinical value]. Pneumologie 2004 O. Holz, RA. Jörres
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Childhood asthma: exhaled markers of airway inflammation, asthma control score, and lung function tests. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2004 PP. Rosias, E. Dompeling, MA. Dentener, HJ. Pennings, HJ. Hendriks, MP. Van Iersel, Q. Jöbsis
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Decreased arginine bioavailability and increased serum arginase activity in asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2004 CR. Morris, M. Poljakovic, L. Lavrisha, L. Machado, FA. Kuypers, SM. Morris
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2004 Jul;170(2):148-53. PubMed:15070820
Plasma levels of TNF-alpha in sickle cell patients receiving hydroxyurea. Hematology 2004 F. Tavakkoli, M. Nahavandi, MQ. Wyche, E. Perlin
Hematology 2004 Feb;9(1):61-4. PubMed:14965870
Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange. J. Appl. Physiol. 2004 SC. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, PE. Silkoff
J. Appl. Physiol. 2004 Mar;96(3):831-9. PubMed:14766761
Changes in pulmonary vascular function after acute methionine loading in normal men. Clin. Sci. 2004 C. O'Dochartaigh, H. Ong, S. Lovell, R. Donnelly, C. Hanratty, M. Riley, M. Frenneaux, I. Young, P. Nicholls
Clin. Sci. 2004 Apr;106(4):413-9. PubMed:14709159
Effects of expiratory pressure on nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Is exhaled nitric oxide really unaffected by pressure? Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2003 R. Kondo, M. Haniuda, T. Yamanda, E. Sato, K. Fujimoto, K. Kubo, J. Amano
Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2003 Dec;139(1):33-40. PubMed:14637308
Slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. Respir. J. 2003 P. Paredi, G. Caramori, D. Cramer, S. Ward, A. Ciaccia, A. Papi, SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes
Eur. Respir. J. 2003 Mar;21(3):439-43. PubMed:12661998
Safety and success of exhaled breath condensate collection in asthma. Arch. Dis. Child. 2003 E. Baraldi, L. Ghiro, V. Piovan, S. Carraro, F. Zacchello, S. Zanconato
Arch. Dis. Child. 2003 Apr;88(4):358-60. PubMed:12651772
L-arginine levels are diminished in adult acute vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis in the emergency department. Br. J. Haematol. 2003 BL. Lopez, AA. Kreshak, CR. Morris, L. Davis-Moon, SK. Ballas, XL. Ma
Br. J. Haematol. 2003 Feb;120(3):532-4. PubMed:12580975
Temporal association of nitric oxide levels and airflow in asthma after whole lung allergen challenge. J. Appl. Physiol. 2003 SB. Khatri, J. Hammel, MS. Kavuru, SC. Erzurum, RA. Dweik
J. Appl. Physiol. 2003 Jul;95(1):436-40; discussion 435. PubMed:12576414
Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs. J. Appl. Physiol. 2002 HW. Shin, SC. George
J. Appl. Physiol. 2002 Dec;93(6):2070-80. PubMed:12391103
Low levels of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. J. Appl. Physiol. 2002 RF. Machado, JK. Stoller, D. Laskowski, S. Zheng, JA. Lupica, RA. Dweik, SC. Erzurum
J. Appl. Physiol. 2002 Dec;93(6):2038-43. PubMed:12391056
Faster rise of exhaled breath temperature in asthma: a novel marker of airway inflammation? Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2002 P. Paredi, SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2002 Jan;165(2):181-4. PubMed:11790651
High levels of nitric oxide in individuals with pulmonary hypertension receiving epoprostenol therapy. Lung 2001 M. Ozkan, RA. Dweik, D. Laskowski, AC. Arroliga, SC. Erzurum
Lung 2001 ;179(4):233-43. PubMed:11891614
Exhaled markers of inflammation. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2001 SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2001 Jun;1(3):217-24. PubMed:11964692
Alterations in exhaled gas profile during allergen-induced asthmatic response. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001 SB. Khatri, M. Ozkan, K. McCarthy, D. Laskowski, J. Hammel, RA. Dweik, SC. Erzurum
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001 Nov;164(10 Pt 1):1844-8. PubMed:11734434
Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure and ascorbic acid supplementation on exhaled nitric oxide in healthy human subjects. Thorax 2001 DC. Chambers, JG. Ayres
Thorax 2001 Oct;56(10):774-8. PubMed:11562516
Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma. Immunol. Cell Biol. 2001 DH. Yates
Immunol. Cell Biol. 2001 Apr;79(2):178-90. PubMed:11264714
Noninvasive assessment of airway inflammation in children: induced sputum, exhaled nitric oxide, and breath condensate. Eur. Respir. J. 2000 PG. Gibson, RL. Henry, P. Thomas
Eur. Respir. J. 2000 Nov;16(5):1008-15. PubMed:11153569
Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease. Br. J. Haematol. 2000 CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles
Br. J. Haematol. 2000 Nov;111(2):498-500. PubMed:11122090
Endogenous nitric oxide in allergic airway disease. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2000 PE. Silkoff, RA. Robbins, B. Gaston, JO. Lundberg, RG. Townley
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2000 Mar;105(3):438-48. PubMed:10719291
Effect of inhaled ozone on exhaled nitric oxide, pulmonary function, and induced sputum in normal and asthmatic subjects. Thorax 1999 JA. Nightingale, DF. Rogers, PJ. Barnes
Thorax 1999 Dec;54(12):1061-9. PubMed:10567624
Sickle cell acute chest syndrome: pathogenesis and rationale for treatment. Blood 1999 MJ. Stuart, BN. Setty
Blood 1999 Sep;94(5):1555-60. PubMed:10477680
Comparison of exhaled nitric oxide to spirometry during emergency treatment of asthma exacerbations with glucocorticoids in children. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999 MJ. Lanz, DY. Leung, CW. White
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999 Feb;82(2):161-4. PubMed:10071519
Effect of natural grass pollen exposure on exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999 E. Baraldi, S. Carrá, C. Dario, N. Azzolin, R. Ongaro, G. Marcer, F. Zacchello
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999 Jan;159(1):262-6. PubMed:9872848
Exhaled nitric oxide is not elevated in the inflammatory airways diseases of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Eur. Respir. J. 1998 LP. Ho, JA. Innes, AP. Greening
Eur. Respir. J. 1998 Dec;12(6):1290-4. PubMed:9877479
Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increases lower respiratory tract nitric oxide concentrations. Thorax 1998 DC. Chambers, WS. Tunnicliffe, JG. Ayres
Thorax 1998 Aug;53(8):677-9. PubMed:9828855
A significant proportion of exhaled nitric oxide arises in large airways in normal subjects. Respir Physiol 1998 PE. Silkoff, PA. McClean, M. Caramori, AS. Slutsky, N. Zamel
Respir Physiol 1998 Jul;113(1):33-8. PubMed:9776548
Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide is increased in laboratory animal allergy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 1998 LA. Adisesh, SA. Kharitonov, DH. Yates, DC. Snashell, AJ. Newman-Taylor, PJ. Barnes
Clin. Exp. Allergy 1998 Jul;28(7):876-80. PubMed:9720822
Cross sectional study of exhaled nitric oxide levels following lung transplantation. Thorax 1998 AJ. Fisher, E. Gabbay, T. Small, S. Doig, JH. Dark, PA. Corris
Thorax 1998 Jun;53(6):454-8. PubMed:9713443
A two-compartment model of pulmonary nitric oxide exchange dynamics. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998 NM. Tsoukias, SC. George
J. Appl. Physiol. 1998 Aug;85(2):653-66. PubMed:9688744
Single-exhalation profiles of NO and CO2 in humans: effect of dynamically changing flow rate. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998 NM. Tsoukias, Z. Tannous, AF. Wilson, SC. George
J. Appl. Physiol. 1998 Aug;85(2):642-52. PubMed:9688743
Measurement of endogenous nitric oxide in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998 SJ. Brett, TW. Evans
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998 Mar;157(3 Pt 1):993-7. PubMed:9517623
Nitric oxide, the biological mediator of the decade: fact or fiction? Eur. Respir. J. 1997 S. Singh, TW. Evans
Eur. Respir. J. 1997 Mar;10(3):699-707. PubMed:9073009
Nitric oxide is present in exhaled breath in humans: direct GC-MS confirmation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994 AM. Leone, LE. Gustafsson, PL. Francis, MG. Persson, NP. Wiklund, S. Moncada
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994 Jun;201(2):883-7. PubMed:8003027
Endogenous nitric oxide in expired air: effects of acute exercise in humans. Life Sci. 1994 JA. Bauer, JA. Wald, S. Doran, D. Soda
Life Sci. 1994 ;55(24):1903-9. PubMed:7990650
Diagnostic value of a pattern of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in asthmatic children. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) I. Maloča Vuljanko, M. Turkalj, B. Nogalo, S. Bulat Lokas, D. Plavec
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Evaluation of Acute Exogenous Hypoxia Impact on the Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Healthy Males. Folia Med (Plovdiv) PK. Dimov, BI. Marinov, IS. Ilchev, ZZ. Taralov, SS. Kostianev
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The effect of omalizumab on small airway inflammation as measured by exhaled nitric oxide in moderate-to-severe asthmatic patients. Allergy Asthma Proc MA. Pasha, D. Jourd'heuil, F. Jourd'heuil, L. Mahon, F. Romero, PJ. Feustel, M. Evans, T. Smith, J. Mitchell, P. Gendapodi, KC. Demeyere-Coursey, RG. Townley
Allergy Asthma Proc 2014 May-Jun;35(3):241-9. PubMed:24801467
Cardiovascular biomarkers in exhaled breath. Prog Cardiovasc Dis FS. Cikach, RA. Dweik
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2012 Jul-Aug;55(1):34-43. PubMed:22824108
Assessing clinical and spirometric control and the intensity of the inflammatory process in asthma. J Pediatr (Rio J) CR. Andrade, JM. Chatkin, PA. Camargos
J Pediatr (Rio J) 2010 Mar-Apr;86(2):93-100. PubMed:20361119
Inflammation, oxidative stress and systemic effects in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol MP. Foschino Barbaro, GE. Carpagnano, A. Spanevello, MG. Cagnazzo, PJ. Barnes
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2007 Oct-Dec;20(4):753-63. PubMed:18179748
Non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation in ship-engine workers. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol M. Barreto, MP. Villa, M. Corradi, S. Barberi, G. Monaco, S. Martella, Z. Bohmerova, G. Sabatino, R. Ronchetti
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2006 Jul-Sep;19(3):601-8. PubMed:17026845
The effects of age on exhaled breath nitric oxide levels. Lung RR. Haight, RL. Gordon, SM. Brooks
Lung 2006 Mar-Apr;184(2):113-9. PubMed:16622781
Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia. Am. J. Hum. Biol. DE. Brown, CM. Beall, KP. Strohl, PS. Mills
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Patterns of arginine and nitric oxide in patients with sickle cell disease with vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles
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Exhaled nitric oxide: a novel biomarker of adverse respiratory health effects in epidemiological studies. Arch. Environ. Health JG. van Amsterdam, S. Nierkens, SG. Vos, A. Opperhuizen, H. van Loveren, PA. Steerenberg
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Associated curated diseases 7

Download diseases

Associated disease mapping

Mapping of all associated diseases to Nitric oxide is displayed in red.

Heart Lung Airway Esophagus Kidney Intestine
Disease Name

with link to disease page

Description of MeSH term

with link to MeSH Database

Number of references
Asbestosis MeSH: Asbestosis
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
Link to MeSH Database: D001195
4
Asthma MeSH: Asthma
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Link to MeSH Database: D001249
91
Cystic Fibrosis MeSH: Cystic Fibrosis
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION. Year introduced: 1967
Link to MeSH Database: D003550
20
Upper And Lower Airway Inflammation In Atopic Dermatitis (Ad) MeSH: Dermatitis, Atopic
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Link to MeSH Database: D003876
4
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia MeSH: Kartagener Syndrome
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts. Year introduced: 2002 (1963)
Link to MeSH Database: D007619
2
Obstructive Sleep Apnea MeSH: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395) Year introduced: 2000
Link to MeSH Database: D020181
7
Obese Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome MeSH: Obesity
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Link to MeSH Database: D009765
1

Associated abnormalities 9

Concept Name External ID Weighted Score Hits References
Asthma ICD9-CM:493.9 965.25 2
  1. Does consumption of ethanol distort measurements of exhaled nitric oxide?
    AW. Jones, M. Fransson, E. Maldonado-Holmertz (2005) Respir Med
  2. Exhaled biomarkers.
    SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes (2006) Chest
Candidiasis ICD9-CM:112 730.18 1
  1. Measurement of endogenous nitric oxide in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    SJ. Brett, TW. Evans (1998) Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
Primary pulmonary hypertension ICD9-CM:416.0 1000.0 1
  1. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide is increased in laboratory animal allergy.
    LA. Adisesh, SA. Kharitonov, DH. Yates, DC. Snashell, AJ. Newman-Taylor, PJ. Barnes (1998) Clin. Exp. Allergy
Atherosclerosis ICD9-CM:440 1000.0 1
  1. Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.
    DH. Yates (2001) Immunol. Cell Biol.
AIRWAY DISEASE 1000.0 1
  1. Korea red ginseng water extract increases nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled breath.
    K. Han, IC. Shin, KJ. Choi, YP. Yun, JT. Hong, KW. Oh (2005) Nitric Oxide
Catabolic state 1000.0 1
  1. Exhaled nitric oxide and nasal tryptase are associated with wheeze, rhinitis and nasal allergy in primary school children.
    S. De Prins, F. Marcucci, L. Sensi, E. Van de Mieroop, V. Nelen, TS. Nawrot, G. Schoeters, G. Koppen (2014) Biomarkers
Septicemia ICD9-CM:038 800.0 1
  1. Exhaled nitric oxide and nasal tryptase are associated with wheeze, rhinitis and nasal allergy in primary school children.
    S. De Prins, F. Marcucci, L. Sensi, E. Van de Mieroop, V. Nelen, TS. Nawrot, G. Schoeters, G. Koppen (2014) Biomarkers
Airway Obstruction 950.5 1
  1. Airway metabolic anomalies in adolescents with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: new insights from the metabolomic approach.
    S. Carraro, G. Giordano, P. Pirillo, M. Maretti, F. Reniero, PE. Cogo, G. Perilongo, M. Stocchero, E. Baraldi (2015) J. Pediatr.
Nasal Polyps ICD9-CM:471.0 1000.0 1
  1. Nasal NO as a biomarker: don't say NO to the many challenges of translational medicine.
    JA. Voynow, AJ. Montpetit (2015) Pediatr. Pulmonol.

Associated chemicals 4

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Boron CHEBI:33609 1000.0 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
NITRATE AND NITRITE 845.24 1
  1. The biology of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury: a tale of dynamism of NO production and consumption.
    N. Marczin (2005) Vascul. Pharmacol.
Sulfhydryl Compounds 569.0 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
Superoxides CHEBI:18421 855.55 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.

Associated functions 25

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Exhalation 782.0 3
  1. Does consumption of ethanol distort measurements of exhaled nitric oxide?
    AW. Jones, M. Fransson, E. Maldonado-Holmertz (2005) Respir Med
  2. Modulation of nitric oxide pathways: therapeutic potential in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    AE. Redington (2006) Eur. J. Pharmacol.
Inflammation 1000.0 3
  1. The biology of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury: a tale of dynamism of NO production and consumption.
    N. Marczin (2005) Vascul. Pharmacol.
  2. Does consumption of ethanol distort measurements of exhaled nitric oxide?
    AW. Jones, M. Fransson, E. Maldonado-Holmertz (2005) Respir Med
  3. Exhaled biomarkers.
    SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes (2006) Chest
soluble NSF attachment protein activity 481.28 2
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
Apoptosis GO:0012501 935.5 2
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
inhibitors 924.0 2
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
Respiratory Burst 887.0 1
  1. Measurement of endogenous nitric oxide in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    SJ. Brett, TW. Evans (1998) Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
Cell Respiration 1000.0 1
  1. Endogenous nitric oxide in allergic airway disease.
    PE. Silkoff, RA. Robbins, B. Gaston, JO. Lundberg, RG. Townley (2000) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
antioxidant activity 1000.0 1
  1. Exhaled markers of inflammation.
    SA. Kharitonov, PJ. Barnes (2001) Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
Anoxia 1000.0 1
  1. Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs.
    HW. Shin, SC. George (2002) J. Appl. Physiol.
Chromosome Pairing 590.72 1
  1. Diagnostic performance of an electronic nose, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and lung function testing in asthma.
    P. Montuschi, M. Santonico, C. Mondino, G. Pennazza, G. Mantini, E. Martinelli, R. Capuano, G. Ciabattoni, R. Paolesse, C. Di Natale, PJ. Barnes, A. D'Amico (2010) Chest
paracrine 887.5 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
DNA Binding GO:0003677 923.75 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity 488.14 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
Gene Expression 950.5 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
Signal Transduction GO:0007165 950.5 1
  1. Breath profiles by electronic nose correlate with systemic markers but not ozone response.
    H. Biller, O. Holz, H. Windt, W. Koch, M. Müller, RA. Jörres, N. Krug, JM. Hohlfeld (2011) Respir Med
Alveolar ventilation function 615.16 1
  1. The biology of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury: a tale of dynamism of NO production and consumption.
    N. Marczin (2005) Vascul. Pharmacol.
physiological aspects 738.1 1
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
Microcirculation 1000.0 1
  1. Exhaled nitric oxide and nasal tryptase are associated with wheeze, rhinitis and nasal allergy in primary school children.
    S. De Prins, F. Marcucci, L. Sensi, E. Van de Mieroop, V. Nelen, TS. Nawrot, G. Schoeters, G. Koppen (2014) Biomarkers
arginine metabolism 1000.0 1
  1. Nasal NO as a biomarker: don't say NO to the many challenges of translational medicine.
    JA. Voynow, AJ. Montpetit (2015) Pediatr. Pulmonol.
Synthesis 950.5 1
  1. Exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH in severe refractory asthma.
    E. Tseliou, V. Bessa, G. Hillas, V. Delimpoura, G. Papadaki, C. Roussos, S. Papiris, P. Bakakos, S. Loukides (2010) Chest
Advisory Committees 649.66 1
  1. Nasal NO as a biomarker: don't say NO to the many challenges of translational medicine.
    JA. Voynow, AJ. Montpetit (2015) Pediatr. Pulmonol.
Functional disorder 733.47 1
  1. The biology of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury: a tale of dynamism of NO production and consumption.
    N. Marczin (2005) Vascul. Pharmacol.
Transcription, Genetic 642.45 1
  1. Breath profiles by electronic nose correlate with systemic markers but not ozone response.
    H. Biller, O. Holz, H. Windt, W. Koch, M. Müller, RA. Jörres, N. Krug, JM. Hohlfeld (2011) Respir Med
Protective Agents 696.62 1
  1. Reference ranges for exhaled nitric oxide derived from a random community survey of adults.
    J. Travers, S. Marsh, S. Aldington, M. Williams, P. Shirtcliffe, A. Pritchard, M. Weatherall, R. Beasley (2007) Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
Inspiration function 625.5 1
  1. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide is increased in laboratory animal allergy.
    LA. Adisesh, SA. Kharitonov, DH. Yates, DC. Snashell, AJ. Newman-Taylor, PJ. Barnes (1998) Clin. Exp. Allergy

Associated genes 2

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
TNF gene EntrezGene:7124 650.02 3
  1. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease.
    CR. Morris, FA. Kuypers, S. Larkin, N. Sweeters, J. Simon, EP. Vichinsky, LA. Styles (2000) Br. J. Haematol.
IRF1 gene EntrezGene:3659 777.78 1
  1. Breath profiles by electronic nose correlate with systemic markers but not ozone response.
    H. Biller, O. Holz, H. Windt, W. Koch, M. Müller, RA. Jörres, N. Krug, JM. Hohlfeld (2011) Respir Med

Chemical Information

Formula NO
Mass 30.006
Synonyms nitric oxide
Mononitrogen monoxide
INOmax
nitrogen monooxide
nitrosyl
10102-43-9
monoxyde d'azote
oxoazanyl
oxyde azotique
oxido nitrico
Stickstoffmonoxid
oxidonitrogen(.)
UNII-31C4KY9ESH
Nitric oxide trimer
EDRF
monoxido de nitrogeno
Stickstoff(II)-oxid
Nitric oxide (JAN)
INOmax (TN)
oxido de nitrogeno(II)
PubChem CID 145068