Chromium

Description

Description of Chromium with associated disease summary

Chromium (Cr) in the trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)] shows limited toxicological properties, whereas Cr(VI) is classified as class 1 carcinogens by the IARC (IARC 1990). Cr(VI) compounds have a number of industrial applications; exposure usually occurs by inhalation. Cr has recently been proposed as a viable biomarker of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). One study measured Cr levels in the EBC of patients with early, operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had not been occupationally exposed to Cr before and after tumor resection. The pre-surgery Cr levels in the EBC of NSCLC patients were not different from those of the controls. Cr levels in the EBC and urine of NSCLC patients were not significantly different from those of non-smoking controls ( Int Arch Occup Environ Health. (2008) ). According to epidemiological data, environmental and occupational agents play a critical role in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), such as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIPs), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and sarcoidosis. A study investigated the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 33 healthy subjects, 22 patients with sarcoidosis, 15 patients with NSIP and 19 with IIPs to determine the role of chromium (Cr) in the pathogenesis of ILDs. Cr traces were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).The EBC levels of pneumotoxic Cr metal were higher in all patient groups (IPF, NSIP, sarcoidosis) compared to controls. Assessing the elemental composition of EBC in ILD patients seems to provide useful information, although further studies are required to confirm the robustness of this approach, and to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes of ILDs ( J Breath Res. (2009) ). Description of disease(s) related to chromium(Cr):

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung

The pre-surgery Cr levels in the EBC of NSCLC patients were not different from those of the controls . Cr levels in the EBC and urine of NSCLC patients were not significantly different from those of non-smoking controls ( Int Arch Occup Environ Health. (2008) ).

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

The EBC levels of pneumotoxic Cr metal were higher in all patient groups (IPF, NSIP, sarcoidosis) compared to controls (J Breath Res. (2009)).

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP)

The EBC levels of pneumotoxic Cr metal were higher in all patient groups (IPF, NSIP, sarcoidosis) compared to controls (J Breath Res. (2009)).

Disease summary

Sarcoidosis

The EBC levels of pneumotoxic Cr metal were higher in all patient groups (IPF, NSIP, sarcoidosis) compared to controls (J Breath Res. (2009)).

Summary of extracted biomedical information

Chromium is associated with abnormalities such as Dermo-. The involved biomedical functions are known as Oxidation, catalyst, Adjudication, Excretory function and Ingestion. Chromium is associated with Zeolites, Metals, Toluene, Chromium Compounds and Hydrogen, Homeopathic preparation.
Imgsrv

Associated references with human 16

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Reference title

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Journal Year Authors & PubMed Link
The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017 E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan
Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017 04;220(2 Pt B):415-423. PubMed:27956251
Assessment of nanoparticles and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate. J Breath Res 2016 C. Marie-Desvergne, M. Dubosson, L. Touri, E. Zimmermann, M. Gaude-Môme, L. Leclerc, C. Durand, M. Klerlein, N. Molinari, I. Vachier, P. Chanez, VC. Mossuz
J Breath Res 2016 07;10(3):036006. PubMed:27409350
An outbreak of occupational asthma due to chromium and cobalt. Occup Med (Lond) 2012 GI. Walters, VC. Moore, AS. Robertson, CB. Burge, AD. Vellore, PS. Burge
Occup Med (Lond) 2012 Oct;62(7):533-40. PubMed:22826555
Chromium in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), erythrocytes, plasma and urine in the biomonitoring of chrome-plating workers exposed to soluble Cr(VI). J Environ Monit 2010 M. Goldoni, A. Caglieri, G. De Palma, O. Acampa, P. Gergelova, M. Corradi, P. Apostoli, A. Mutti
J Environ Monit 2010 Feb;12(2):442-7. PubMed:20145884
Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks. J Occup Environ Hyg 2010 JD. Meeker, P. Susi, MR. Flynn
J Occup Environ Hyg 2010 Nov;7(11):607-15. PubMed:20845207
Respiration-induced kidney motion on cobalt-chromium stent fatigue resistance. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater. 2009 HM. Hsiao, A. Nikanorov, S. Prabhu, MK. Razavi
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater. 2009 Nov;91(2):508-16. PubMed:19507142
Hexavalent chromium exposures and exposure-control technologies in American enterprise: results of a NIOSH field research study. J Occup Environ Hyg 2007 LM. Blade, MS. Yencken, ME. Wallace, JD. Catalano, A. Khan, JL. Topmiller, SA. Shulman, A. Martinez, KG. Crouch, JS. Bennett
J Occup Environ Hyg 2007 Aug;4(8):596-618. PubMed:17577750
Exposure to lead, cadmium and chromium among spray painters in automobile body repair shops. J Occup Health 2005 B. Vitayavirasuk, S. Junhom, P. Tantisaeranee
J Occup Health 2005 Nov;47(6):518-22. PubMed:16369115
Dermal exposure to chromium in electroplating. Ann Occup Hyg 2004 M. Mäkinen, M. Linnainmaa
Ann Occup Hyg 2004 Apr;48(3):277-83. PubMed:15059804
Respiratory health effects of long-term exposure to different chromium species in stainless steel production. Occup Med (Lond) 2002 M. Huvinen, J. Uitti, P. Oksa, P. Palmroos, P. Laippala
Occup Med (Lond) 2002 Jun;52(4):203-12. PubMed:12091586
Laboratory measurement of hazardous fumes and gases at a point corresponding to breathing zone of welder during a CO2 arc welding. Ind Health 2000 H. Saito, J. Ojima, M. Takaya, T. Iwasaki, N. Hisanaga, S. Tanaka, H. Arito
Ind Health 2000 Jan;38(1):69-78. PubMed:10680313
Occupational asthma due to chromium. Respiration 1998 C. Leroyer, JD. Dewitte, A. Bassanets, M. Boutoux, C. Daniel, J. Clavier
Respiration 1998 ;65(5):403-5. PubMed:9782225
Maintenance of stellite and tungsten carbide saw tips: respiratory health and exposure-response evaluations. Occup Environ Med 1995 SM. Kennedy, M. Chan-Yeung, S. Marion, J. Lea, K. Teschke
Occup Environ Med 1995 Mar;52(3):185-91. PubMed:7735392
A retrospective-cohort study of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Am. J. Ind. Med. 1994 H. Pastides, R. Austin, S. Lemeshow, J. Klar, KA. Mundt
Am. J. Ind. Med. 1994 May;25(5):663-75. PubMed:8030637
The National Exposure Registry: procedures for establishing a registry of persons environmentally exposed to hazardous substances. Toxicol Ind Health JR. Burg, GL. Gist
Toxicol Ind Health 1995 Mar-Apr;11(2):231-48. PubMed:7491637
Lead, chromium, and cadmium exposure during abrasive blasting. Arch. Environ. Health LM. Conroy, RM. Menezes-Lindsay, PM. Sullivan, S. Cali, L. Forst
Arch. Environ. Health 1996 Mar-Apr;51(2):95-9. PubMed:8638970

Associated curated diseases 5

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Associated disease mapping

Mapping of all associated diseases to Chromium is displayed in red.

Heart Lung Airway Esophagus Kidney Intestine
Disease Name

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Description of MeSH term

with link to MeSH Database

Number of references
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer, Lung Neoplasms MeSH: Lung Neoplasms
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Link to MeSH Database: D008175
4
Sarcoidosis MeSH: Sarcoidosis
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands. Year introduced: PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS use SARCOIDOSIS 1963-1992
Link to MeSH Database: D012507
4
Non Specific Interstitial Pneumonia MeSH: Lung Diseases, Interstitial
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features. Year introduced: 1994
Link to MeSH Database: D017563
1
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis MeSH: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change. Year introduced: 2009
Link to MeSH Database: D054990
3
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer, Carcinoma MeSH: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy. Year introduced: 1994
Link to MeSH Database: D002289
2

Associated abnormalities 1

Concept Name External ID Weighted Score Hits References
Dermo- 1000.0 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health

Associated chemicals 9

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Zeolites 891.63 3
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
Toluene CHEBI:17578 1000.0 2
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
Chromium Compounds 976.5 2
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Hydrogen, Homeopathic preparation 621.21 1
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
Transition Elements 938.87 1
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
Germanium CHEBI:30441 1000.0 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Aluminum CHEBI:28984 1000.0 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Tungsten 1000.0 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Chromates 944.22 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health

Associated functions 12

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Oxidation 986.86 3
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
Adjudication 914.92 2
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Excretory function 718.0 2
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Ingestion 1000.0 2
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Skin Absorption 1000.0 2
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Inspiration function 729.08 2
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Edema HP:0000969 931.75 1
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
enzyme activity 1000.0 1
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
catalyst 993.78 1
  1. Reutilization of Cr-Y zeolite obtained by biosorption in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds.
    B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, VP. Santos, MF. Pereira, JL. Figueiredo, AE. Lewandowska, MA. Bañares, IC. Neves, T. Tavares (2011) J. Hazard. Mater.
Blood Circulation GO:0008015 852.94 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Pigment 1000.0 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health
Respiration 909.09 1
  1. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.
    E. Leese, J. Morton, PHE. Gardiner, VA. Carolan (2017) Int J Hyg Environ Health

Associated genes 0

No associated genes are detected in current reference collection.

There are 16 associated references with Chromium. Due to lack of full text of references or no associated genes are detected in our text-mining workflow, we cannot extract any gene terms from the associated reference collection.

Chemical Information

Formula Cr
Mass 51.996
Synonyms CHROMIUM
7440-47-3
Chrome
Chrom
cromo
Chrome [French]
Chromium compounds
Chrom [German]
Chromium, elemental
Chromium, metal
(49cr)chromium
(51cr)chromium
CCRIS 159
UNII-0R0008Q3JB
HSDB 910
EINECS 231-157-5
Chromic acid and chromates
24Cr
CHEBI:28073
Chromium, metal and insol. salts
PubChem CID 23976