Adenosine

Description

Description of adenosine with associated disease summary

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside regulating many biochemical processes. Elevated levels of adenosine can be found in exhaled breath condensate of patients with asthma. Different Mass spectrometry instruments and measurements including LC (Pharmacia LKB; HPLC System, Uppsala, Sweden), LC-MS(Ultimate 3000 Dionex HPLC system coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with an Advion Triversa NanoMate source), LC-MS/MS(Acquity UPLC HSS T3 1.8 micro meter with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, TSQ Quantum Ultra Mass Spectrometer, ThermoFinnigan, San Jose, CA) can be used to measure EBC concentrations of adenosine from patients or healthy subjects. Description of disease(s) related to Adenosine:

Disease summary

Asthma

A metabolomic profiling of EBC analysis using Bidirectional-Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures-Discriminant (O2PLS-DA) method was constructed for distinguishing both between severe asthma cases and healthy children and between severe and nonsevere asthmatic children. The chemical structures of adenosine, retinoic acid, and vitamin D have been found to be relevant characteristics that could clearly discriminate different biochemical-metabolic profiles in between non-severe/severe asthmatic and healthy children. The Adenosine measurement in EBC is a confident biomarker for monitoring airway inflammation in patients with asthma (Allergy. (2013)). Another study shows the elevated adenosine level in steroid-naïve asthmatic patients compared with healthy control but no significant difference of adenosine level between the steroid-treated asthmatic patients and healthy control (Eur Respir J. (2002)).

Bronchoconstriction

Significant increase in the adenosine concentration in EBC determined by HPLC and can be found in patients with physically exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (airway obstruction) compared to the healthy controls (Eur Respir J. (2005) ).

Cystic Fibrosis

The EBC concentration ratio of purine adenosine (Ado) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) has strong correlation with the children (<3 years old) with cystic fibrosis or other lung diseases and can be used as a less invasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation (Pediatr Pulmonol. (2013)).

Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial

Patients with allergic rhinitis that may initiate inflammation in the lower airways results in an increased adenosine levels in EBC and also correlates with an increased in nasal nitric oxide (NO) levels. Rhinitis patients with no asthma may also have the symptoms of subclinical inflammation in their lower airways (Clin Exp Allergy. (2006)).

Summary of extracted biomedical information

Adenosine is associated with inorganic phosphate.
Imgsrv

Associated references with human 7

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Reference title

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Journal Year Authors & PubMed Link
Human exhaled breath analysis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011 TA. Popov
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011 Jun;106(6):451-6; quiz 457. PubMed:21624743
Exhaled breath condensate in patients with asthma: implications for application in clinical practice. Clin. Exp. Allergy 2008 K. Kostikas, A. Koutsokera, S. Papiris, KI. Gourgoulianis, S. Loukides
Clin. Exp. Allergy 2008 Apr;38(4):557-65. PubMed:18352973
Elevated expression of adenosine A1 receptor in bronchial biopsy specimens from asthmatic subjects. Eur. Respir. J. 2008 RA. Brown, GW. Clarke, CL. Ledbetter, MJ. Hurle, JC. Denyer, DE. Simcock, JE. Coote, TJ. Savage, RD. Murdoch, CP. Page, D. Spina, BJ. O'Connor
Eur. Respir. J. 2008 Feb;31(2):311-9. PubMed:17959644
Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Respir. Res. 2007 Z. Zietkowski, R. Skiepko, MM. Tomasiak, A. Bodzenta-Lukaszyk
Respir. Res. 2007 Oct;8:76. PubMed:17973986
Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions. Eur. Respir. J. 2005 I. Horváth, J. Hunt, PJ. Barnes, K. Alving, A. Antczak, E. Baraldi, G. Becher, WJ. van Beurden, M. Corradi, R. Dekhuijzen, RA. Dweik, T. Dwyer, R. Effros, S. Erzurum, B. Gaston, C. Gessner, A. Greening, LP. Ho, J. Hohlfeld, Q. Jöbsis, D. Laskowski, S. Loukides, D. Marlin, P. Montuschi, AC. Olin, AE. Redington, P. Reinhold, EL. van Rensen, I. Rubinstein, P. Silkoff, K. Toren, G. Vass, C. Vogelberg, H. Wirtz, .
Eur. Respir. J. 2005 Sep;26(3):523-48. PubMed:16135737
Adenosine levels in the exhaled breath condensate: a potential surrogate marker of airway inflammation. Eur. Respir. J. 2003 L. Spicuzza, GU. Di Maria, R. Polosa
Eur. Respir. J. 2003 Aug;22(2):392; author reply 392-3. PubMed:12952279
The case for a role for adenosine in asthma: almost convincing? Curr Opin Pharmacol 2003 JR. Fozard
Curr Opin Pharmacol 2003 Jun;3(3):264-9. PubMed:12810190

Associated curated diseases 4

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Associated disease mapping

Mapping of all associated diseases to adenosine is displayed in red.

Heart Lung Airway Esophagus Kidney Intestine
Disease Name

with link to disease page

Description of MeSH term

with link to MeSH Database

Number of references
Asthma MeSH: Asthma
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Link to MeSH Database: D001249
91
Allergic Rhinitis With Asthma MeSH: Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc. Year introduced: 1980
Link to MeSH Database: D012221
5
Exercise Induced Bronchoconstriction MeSH: Bronchoconstriction
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention. Year introduced: 1991
Link to MeSH Database: D016084
2
Cystic Fibrosis MeSH: Cystic Fibrosis
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION. Year introduced: 1967
Link to MeSH Database: D003550
20

Associated abnormalities 0

No associated abnormalities are detected in current reference collection.

There are 7 associated references with adenosine. Due to lack of full text of references or no associated abnormalities are detected in our text-mining workflow, we cannot extract any abnormality terms from the associated reference collection.

Associated chemicals 0

No associated chemicals are detected in current reference collection.

There are 7 associated references with adenosine. Due to lack of full text of references or no associated chemicals are detected in our text-mining workflow, we cannot extract any chemical terms from the associated reference collection.

Associated functions 0

No associated functions are detected in current reference collection.

There are 7 associated references with adenosine. Due to lack of full text of references or no associated functions are detected in our text-mining workflow, we cannot extract any function terms from the associated reference collection.

Associated genes 0

No associated genes are detected in current reference collection.

There are 7 associated references with adenosine. Due to lack of full text of references or no associated genes are detected in our text-mining workflow, we cannot extract any gene terms from the associated reference collection.

Chemical Information

Formula C10H13N5O4
Mass 267.245
Synonyms adenosine
58-61-7
Adenoscan
Adenocard
Adenine riboside
Adenosin
beta-D-Adenosine
Nucleocardyl
Adenocor
Boniton
Sandesin
Myocol
Adenine nucleoside
beta-Adenosine
9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyladenine
Vidarabine
9-beta-D-Ribofuranosidoadenine
Adenosin [German]
USAF CB-10
9beta-D-Ribofuranosyladenine
PubChem CID 60961