Chloride

Description

Description of chloride with associated disease summary

Chloride is a salt of hydrochloric acid consisting of two elements, one of which is chlorine. Description of disease(s) related to Chloride:

Chronic Cough

Chloride was measured using an ion-specific electrode. Patients with chronic cough had lower chloride levels compared to controls. The epithelial lining fluid of patients with chronic cough has reduced chloride levels which could contribute to the enhanced cough reflex. (Thorax. 2004)

Cystic Fibrosis

The EBC samples were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Baseline EBC chloride was lower in cystic fibrosis subjects compared to healthy participants (Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med. 2013).

Summary of extracted biomedical information

chloride is associated with abnormalities such as Epilepsy. The involved biomedical functions are known as Chromosome Pairing, symporter activity, Polymerization, Exhalation and chloride transport. The associated genes/proteins with chloride are CLCA2 gene. chloride is associated with Chlorides, ferric chloride, Bicarbonates, Coal and Dinitrobenzenes.
Imgsrv

Associated references with human 3

Download references
Reference title

with link to reference page

Journal Year Authors & PubMed Link
Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Respir Med 2015 CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder
Respir Med 2015 Aug;109(8):1001-11. PubMed:26077038
Re: Repeatability of sodium and chloride in exhaled breath condensates, Zacharasiewicz et al. Pediatr Pulmonol 2004;37:273-275. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2004 RM. Effros
Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2004 Oct;38(4):358-9; author reply 359. PubMed:15334518
Repeatability of sodium and chloride in exhaled breath condensates. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2004 A. Zacharasiewicz, N. Wilson, C. Lex, A. Li, M. Kemp, J. Donovan, J. Hooper, SA. Kharitonov, A. Bush
Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2004 Mar;37(3):273-5. PubMed:14966822

Associated curated diseases 3

Download diseases

Associated disease mapping

Mapping of all associated diseases to chloride is displayed in red.

Heart Lung Airway Esophagus Kidney Intestine
Disease Name

with link to disease page

Description of MeSH term

with link to MeSH Database

Number of references
Chronic Cough MeSH: Chronic Disease
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Link to MeSH Database: D002908
2
Cystic Fibrosis MeSH: Cystic Fibrosis
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION. Year introduced: 1967
Link to MeSH Database: D003550
20
Cough MeSH: Cough
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Link to MeSH Database: D003371
2

Associated abnormalities 1

Concept Name External ID Weighted Score Hits References
Epilepsy ICD9-CM:345.9 1000.0 1
  1. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?
    F. Laturnus, M. Matucha (2008) J Environ Radioact

Associated chemicals 5

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Chlorides 847.49 5
  1. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?
    F. Laturnus, M. Matucha (2008) J Environ Radioact
  2. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med
  3. Temporal and spatial variability of trace volatile organic compounds in rainwater.
    KM. Mullaugh, JM. Hamilton, GB. Avery, JD. Felix, RN. Mead, JD. Willey, RJ. Kieber (2015) Chemosphere
Bicarbonates 958.33 1
  1. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?
    F. Laturnus, M. Matucha (2008) J Environ Radioact
ferric chloride 975.25 1
  1. Synthesis of 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of benzene.
    QB. Meng, GS. Yang, YS. Lee (2012) J. Hazard. Mater.
Coal 944.0 1
  1. Exhaust characteristics during the pyrolysis of ZnCl2 immersed biosludge.
    HL. Chiang, KH. Lin, HH. Chiu (2012) J. Hazard. Mater.
WATER,DISTILLED 950.5 1
  1. Synthesis of 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of benzene.
    QB. Meng, GS. Yang, YS. Lee (2012) J. Hazard. Mater.

Associated functions 7

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
Chromosome Pairing 640.22 1
  1. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?
    F. Laturnus, M. Matucha (2008) J Environ Radioact
symporter activity 801.39 1
  1. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?
    F. Laturnus, M. Matucha (2008) J Environ Radioact
Exhalation 786.0 1
  1. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med
chloride transport 1000.0 1
  1. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med
Ion Transport 950.5 1
  1. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med
Exocytosis GO:0006887 875.5 1
  1. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med
Regulation 944.0 1
  1. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med

Associated genes 1

Concept Name External ID Definition Weighted Score Hits References
CLCA2 gene EntrezGene:9635 700.0 1
  1. Moderate intensity exercise mediates comparable increases in exhaled chloride as albuterol in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
    CM. Wheatley, SE. Baker, MA. Morgan, MG. Martinez, B. Liu, SM. Rowe, WJ. Morgan, EC. Wong, SR. Karpen, EM. Snyder (2015) Respir Med

Chemical Information

Formula Cl
Mass 35.45
Synonyms chloride
chloride ion
Chloride(1-)
16887-00-6
Chloride anion
Chlorine, ion
UNII-Q32ZN48698
Hydrochloric acid, ion(1-)
CHEMBL19429
Cl-
CHEBI:17996
Chloride ions
Chloride (ion)
2647-14-5
Perchloride
Chlorine anion
Chlorine ion
Chloride (Cl-)
Chlorine(1-)
Chlorine ion(1-)
PubChem CID 312